Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Morphology,Cultivation ,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Ground nut( Arachis hypogea ) & Mustard( Brassica campestris ). Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Proff Government Post Graduate College For Girls-11,Chandigarh.
Morphology,Cultivation ,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Ground nut(Arachishypogea) & Mustard(Brassicacampestris)
Dr VISHAL SHARMA
Government Post Graduate College For Girls-11,Chandigarh
Groundnut has the first place among all the oilseed crops in India accounting for more than 40 per cent acreage and 60 per cent production in the country. Groundnut is also known as peanut, earthnut, monkey nut, goober, pinda and Manila nut. Among the oilseed crops, groundnut has first Groundnut oil is primarily used in the manufacture of vegetable oil (vanaspati ghee).
Groundnuts are a good source of all B vitamins except B12. They are a rich source of thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and vitamin E. However, they lack in vitamin A. With regard to minerals, phosphorus, calcium and iron are present in significant amount.A new synthetic textile fibril “ardil” is made from peanut proteins.
Groundnut is a tropical plant raised as a rainfedKharif crop, being sown from April-May to June-July depending upon the receipt of monsoon rains..Groundnut is a low growing annual herb.The stem is cylindrical,hairy and the leaves are compound,each leaf posses two pairs of opposite leaflets.Root system is taproot system and is nodulated.
The flowers are 5-7 cm long,yellow,sessile with Papillionaceouscorolla.Self pollination occurs in groundnut and the flowers are intersexual anf they remain closed.
The fruit is an elongated,oblong,indehiscent pod containing 1-3,occassionally 6 seeds.The fruit is known as lomentouspods.The seeds are non-endospermic.
In India the cultivation of Groundnut is mostly confined to the southern Indian states, viz
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The other important
states where it is grown are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab
Groundnut is essentially a tropical plant. It requires a long and warm growing season. The most favourable climatic conditions for groundnut are a well distributed rainfall of at least 50 centimetre during growing season, abundance of sunshine and relatively warm temperatures. It seems that plant will grow best when the mean temperature is from 21-26.5 Degree Celsius. Lower temperatures are not suitable for its proper development. During ripening period it requires about a month of warm and dry weather. The rainfed crop should be sown with the advent of monsoon in the last week of June or in the first week of July. The sowing should be completed as early as possible as delayed sowing causes progressive reduction in the yield in a higher yield. It will also help in getting the field vacated in time for the sowing of Rabi crops. In southern part of the country where groundnut is sown in Rabi season also, it should be sown in the month of November and December
Groundnut is grown in rotation with wheat, gram, pea, barley, etc. It is grown as a mixed
crop with bajra, maize, jowar, castor and cotton. Groundnut can also be followed by
safflower where early varieties are grown and moisture remains in the soil at the time of
Although groundnut is a deep-rooted crop but looking to its under-ground pod forming habit, deep ploughing should be avoided. Because deep ploughing encourages development of pods in deeper layers of soil which makes harvesting difficult. One ploughing with soil turning plough followed by two harrowings would be sufficient to achieve a good surface tilth up to 12-18 centimetredepth.Pods for seed purposes should be stored unshelled in a cool, dry and ventilated place. For seed purposes, pods should be shelled by hand one week before sowing. Hand shelling ensures little damage to seeds. Pods shelled long before sowing time are liable to suffer from loss of viability and storage damages. Discard very small, shriveled and diseases kernels. Only bold seeds should be used for sowing. It is advised to treat the selected kernels with 5 g of Thiram or Captan or Ceresan per kg of kernels
In bunch types, the row to row distance is kept 30-40 cm and in spreading types 45-60
centimetre. For this, 80-1000 kg of seeds per hectare would be enough for bunch types
and 60-80 kg for spreading types. Plant to plant distance would be 15 and 20 centimetre
for bunch and spreading types respectively. Sowing should be done about 5 centimetre
deep behind the plough or with the help of dibbler or seed planter. On a large scale, seed
planter can be used.
Fertilizer and Nutrient Management
Like the other legumes, groundnut too meets the major part of its nitrogen requirement through nitrogen fixation. However, an application of 20-40 kg nitrogen per hectare as a starter dose should be given to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage in poor fertility soils. If farm yard manure or compost is available, 10-15 tonnes may be added per hectare about 15-20 days before sowing. If nitrogen is to be applied through fertilisers, prefer ammonium sulphate. It provides sulphur in addition to nitrogen. The soil should be tested for the availability status of phosphorus and potassium and fertilizer recommendations for groundnut be obtained. In the absence of soil test, it would be adivisable to apply about 50-60 kg P2O5 and about 30-40 kg K2O per hectare to meet the requirement of the crop. Phosphorus should be applied preferably through super phosphate. The fertilisers should be placed at the time of sowing about 4-5 centimetre in the side of the seed and 4-5 centimetre below the seed level.
Calcium too has pronounced effect on proper development of pods and kernels.
Therefore, care should be taken to ensure that soil has sufficient calcium.
Besides N, P, K, Ca and S are the major nutrients required by the groundnut crop.
Gypsum is the cheapest source of calcium (25%) and sulphur (18.6%). Well
powdered gypsum should be applied on the soil surface as close to the base of the plant
as possible when it is in the peak flowering stage
Being a rainy season crop, groundnut does not require irrigation. However, if dry spell
occurs, irrigation may become necessary. One irrigation should be given at
pod development stage. The field should be well drained.It is advised to give the first
irrigation at the start of flowering and the sub-sequent irrigation whenever required
during the fruiting period to encourage peg penetration and pod development.
It is necessary to dig the pods at the right time for obtaining higher yields of pods and oil.
Nut takes two months to attain full development. Harvesting should be done when
good percentage of nuts are fully developed and fairly intact. In case of bunch type of
groundnut, the plants are harvested by pulling. Harvesting of spreading type
of groundnut is done by spade, local plough or with the help of blade harrow or
groundnut digger. Leave the harvested crop in small heaps for two three days for
curing. After curing, collect the crop at one place and detach the pods either by hand or
using groundnut pluckier for separating the pods
High yielding bunch variety;
Resistant to bud necrosis disease and drought;
Matures in 120 days after the cessation of rainy season;
Yields 1500 kg/ha in Maharashtra and MP;
Gave 2500 kg/ha in trials conducted in AP and Karnataka;
70% shelling and 49% of oil content;
Specifically released for growing after the rainy season in AP, Karnataka, and for some parts in Maharashtra and MP.
High yielding bunch variety.
Matures in 110 to 120 days when grown during summer.
Resistant to drought and can withstand bud necrosis.
Yields 3000 to 4000 kg/ha with good practices.
70% shelling, 48% of oil and 23% protein content.
This variety was released in 1990 for summer season in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and north Maharashtra.
High yielding bunch variety;
Matures in 96 to 123 days;
Resistant to rust disease;
With stands bud necrosis and pod rot diseases and to attack of Tobacco Caterpillar (Spodoptera);
Yields around 3000 kg/ha;
Released for AP, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and South Maharashtra;
Some farmers reported that the seeds are some what bitter in taste but no problem for oil extraction.
ICGV 86564 (Asha)
High yielding and bold seeded Virginia type;
Matures in 120 to 130 days during rainy season and 140 to 150 days when grown as rabi or summer crop;
Yields around 3000 kg/ha;
Being bold seeded contains 51% oil and 22% protein;
Suitable for oil extraction and for confectionery use;
Released in Sri Lanka and grown for exporting in Gujarat and Maharashtra;
Yields high with good cultural practices including gypsum application
High yielding bunch type;
Matures in 100 days (10 days earlier than other popular varieties);
Ability to withstand prolonged drought spells;
Improved resistance to diseases;
Yields around 2500 to 3000 kg/ha with higher haulm yields;
Better pod filling and larger seed size;
Better fodder quality than the predominant variety like TMV 2.
High yielding bunch type;
Matures in 110 to 120 days;
Special ability of seeds to withstand aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus fungi;
Yields around 2200 kg/ha;
68% of shelling with 54% oil and 18.2% protein contents
Plants are erect,slender, branched annual herbs about 50-150cm tall.generally covered with waxy deposit called ‘bloom’.The leaves are auricled generally,lyrate(pinnatipartite).The yellow flowers are borne in a corymboseraceme,each having a typical crucuferousplani.e four sepals,cruciform petals which are clawed,tetradynamous stamens and a bicarpellarysyncarpousovary.The fruit is siliqua or silicula
The major mustard growing areas are:Russia,Canada,Denmark,France&Germany.InAsia,it is cultivated in China,India and Pakistan
In India,it is mainly cultivated in U.P,Punjab,Haryana,Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh and Assam
Climate & Soil:
It is well adapted to grow in both tropical and temperate regions.It requires loamy and heavy loamy soils.Medium and heavy soils are also best for cultivation
Brassicas are grown in gangetic plains mostly mixed with other crops like Wheat and grams and sometimes as a pure crop as a rabicrop.In India sowing take place in October-November and harvesting in February or April.It is rainfedcrop.It requires 4-6 kg seeds/ha when sown as pure crop..The seeds are uniformly sown at depth of 4-6cm.In mixed cropping 1.7-2.225 kg/ha seeds are sown in parallel rows with main crop(Wheat)
Mustard respond wellto fertilizers and 40-70kg of Nitrogen and 40 kg P2O5 per hectare has been found to boost the seed yield .
The crop becomes ready for harvesting when leaves have dropped off the plant and the pods have turned yellow after about 110-160 days of sowing.
The harvesting of crop is done by means of hand sickels.Harvesting of crop goes on from February to March.The crop in made into bundles and stacked in the sun for couple of days.After threshing ,the threshed grain is separated from the hsk by winnowing and packed in gunny bags.The storage rooms are to be kept free from humidity
HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES: