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Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 PowerPoint Presentation
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Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648

Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648

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Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648

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  1. Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire, 1547-1555 Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593 Dutch Revolt from Spain, 1566-1648 Anglo-Spanish Conflict – 1571 onward Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 English Civil War (Puritan Rebellion), 1642-1648 English Glorious Revolution, 1688-89

  2. Christian Apologetics Strategy 1: Point out the enormous secular components in all of the “wars of religion” Strategy 2: Point out the betrayal of Christian principles involved in the motives of those who engaged in “religious wars” Mt. 26:52 – Jesus’ rebuke of Peter  "Put your sword back in its place," Jesus said to him, "for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. John 18:36 – Jesus’ words to Pilate  Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place."

  3. Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire, 1547-1555 Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Division of Hapsburg territories into Imperial & Spanish lands

  4. Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Charles IX 3,000 killed in Paris; 10,000 elsewhere Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593: 3-cornered conflict between Huguenots (Bourbon), “Ultras” (Guise), “Politiques” (Valois) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572 Catherine de Medici

  5. Henri of Guise Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Henri III Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593: War of the Three Henries, 1587-89 Henry III, Henry, Duke of Guise, Henry Bourbon, King of Navarre

  6. Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Henri III Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593: War of the Three Henries, 1587-89 Henry III, Henry, Duke of Guise, Henry Bourbon, King of Navarre Henry IV Conversion to Catholic Church [“Paris is well worth a mass”] Edict of Nantes, 1598 – limited tolerance for Huguenots

  7. Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648 Amsterdam Stock Exchange Dutch Revolt from Spain: Philip II’s contrast to Charles Alien outsider threatens Dutch autonomy and prosperity Castilian bureaucrats Sidelining States-General Taxes on trade Reorganization of Church to better combat Calvinism Nobles’ Opposition led by William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (aka, the Silent) Assassinated in 1584

  8. Dutch Revolt from Spain: Duke of Alba’s “Council of Blood” and the “Spanish Fury” in 1576 8,000 killed in sack of Antwerp by soldiers who hadn’t been paid in 2 years Union of Brussels – religion laid aside as all Netherlands unite under Wm. the Silent vs. Philip Duke of Parma “pacifies” southern provinces Calvinist flee to north

  9. Division of the Netherlands, 1579 Union of Arras (10 provinces) Union of Utrecht (7 provinces)

  10. Division of the Netherlands, 1579 Union of Arras (10 provinces) Union of Utrecht (7 provinces) Act of Abjuration (1581) declaration of independence early statement of the compact theory of gov’t.: ”the people were not created by God for the prince, but the prince was made for the good of the people.” right of revolution when compact is broken

  11. Dutch Revolt from Spain: The Twelve Year Truce (1609-1621) Eventual recognition of full independence of the United Netherlands in the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

  12. Anglo-Spanish Conflict • Rivalry in the New World • Drake’s raids on Spanish colonies (from 1571 on) • English efforts to capture Spanish treasure ships • Elizabeth’s share of Drake’s haul in 1581 was double her normal annual revenues for all other sources Sir Francis Drake Replica of Golden Hind

  13. Anglo-Spanish Conflict • English intervention in the Dutch revolt • In 1585, Robt. Dudley leads 6,000 man army • Dutch ships allowed use of English ports

  14. Anglo-Spanish Conflict • Religious crusade of Philip II • Expels Moriscos & Maranos from Spain • Mediterranean crusade against Turks • Suppression of Calvinism in Netherlands • Intervention in France on behalf of Guise and “Ultras” • 3 Armadas to conquer England

  15. Mary, Queen of Scots • Queen at 1 week of age • Sent to France at age 6 • Married François Valois, Dauphin • Queen of France, 1559-1560 • Returned to Scotland, 1561 • Clashes with John Knox • Implicated in murder of her 2nd • husband (and cousin), Henry Steward, Lord Darnley, 1567 • Quickly re-married suspected murderer of Darnley, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell • Deposed, defeated, escaped from island prison, fled to England, 1568 • Imprisoned by Elizabeth • Implicated in Catholic plots • Executed - 1587

  16. Mary’s execution Fotheringhay Castle, Feb. 1587 Mary’s sarcophagus

  17. The tomb of Mary and Elizabeth at Westminster Abbey. The Latin translates: "Partners both in throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection."

  18. HOUSE OF TUDOR

  19. Climax & Defeat of Absolutism in England JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND (1567-1625) BECOMES JAMES I OF ENGLAND (1603-1625) A. ABSOLUTIST CONVICTIONS: No understanding of nor appreciation for the dynamics of “Tudor absolutism” TREW LAW OF FREE MONARCHY -- “Kings are God’s Lieutenants on Earth.”

  20. B.RELIGIOUS CONVICTIONS: 1. Anti-Puritan -- HAMPTON COURT PALACE CONFERENCE -- uncompromising defense of Anglican forms and organization and a threat to the Puritans to conform or be "harried from the land"

  21. English Puritans • Disciples of John Calvin • Marian exiles (to Geneva) • Returned following Mary’s death • Objected to Elizabethan settlement • Act of Uniformity of 1559 • Act of Supremacy of 1559 • Began to be called “Puritans” in 1564 • 39 Articles of 1566 • Agitation mounts in 1569 • First Puritan parish organized in 1572 • Elizabeth counterattacks • Growth among the gentry and residents of London • Became majority in the House of Commons

  22. 2. ANTI-CATHOLIC -- GUY FAWKES & THE GUNPOWDER PLOT (Nov. 5, 1605) -- Catholic plot to blow up King and Parliament

  23. “Highlights” of James’ Reign • Hampton Court Palace Conference, 1604 • “No bishop, no king!” (Book of Sports, 1618) • Gunpowder Plot, Nov. 5, 1605 • 1st permanent English settlement in New World – Jamestown, 1607 • “Authorized” (a.k.a. KJV) translation of the Bible, 1611 • Peaceful foreign policy • Treaty with Spain, 1604 • Mediation of truce in Dutch revolt, 1608 • Delayed involvement in 30 Years’ War (Danish phase)

  24. “Highlights” of James’ Reign • First Puritan migration to New England – “Pilgrims/ Separatists”, 1620 • Stormy relations with Parliaments (4 met during reign) • Addled Parliament of 1614 – deadlocked over grievances; passed no laws • Protestations of 1621; James ripped page out of H. of C. Journal

  25. The Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648) • Background • Religious conflict – breakdown of Peace of Augsburg • Spread of Calvinism – Palatinate and Brandenburg (both electorates) have Calvinist rulers as well as other less important states • Lutheran princes secularization of Church lands • Aggressive “Counter Reformation” Catholicism • Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire – Habsburg centralization vs. “feudal particularism” of princes/cities • Dynastic-nationalist considerations – territorial ambitions of Danish and Swedish kings coalesce with the larger Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry lasting until 1659 • After the first phase of the war, the chief combatants will be non-Germans, but all the fighting will occur on German soil

  26. The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) • Selection of Archduke Ferdinand (nephew of Emperor Matthias) as King of Bohemia • Ferdinand’s campaign against Protestants in Bohemia, revoking toleration guaranteed by his predecessor • “Defenestration of Prague” to protest Ferdinand’s actions • Deposing of Ferdinand as king of Bohemia (just after he had been elected Emperor in 1619) and selection of Frederick V of the Palatinate, leader of the Protestant Union and son-in-law of James I of England, as King of Bohemia

  27. The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) • Ferdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria • Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov. 1620 Maximilian of Bavaria

  28. The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) • Ferdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria • Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov. 1620 • Ferdinand takes land of Protestant nobles, declares Bohemia a hereditary kingdom, and outlaws Protestantism • Maximilian invades/takes most of Palatinate • Frederick flees to Netherlands which has been invaded by Spanish ending the 12 Year Truce Maximilian of Bavaria

  29. The Danish Phase (1625 – 1629) • The Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) • The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) • Outcomes • Peace of Westphalia (1648) – Empire’s political fragmentation guaranteed in international law • Social and economic effects • 1/3rd of urban population 2/5ths of rural population died, mostly from famine accompanying collapse of agricultural economy • Empire had 7-8,000,000 FEWER inhabitants in 1648 as in 1618

  30. II. CHARLES I (1600-1649; r. 1625-1649)

  31. II. CHARLES I (1600-1649; r. 1625-1649) A. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT • Downward spiral in 1st 3 parliaments (1625-1629) • Foreign policy: Disastrous intervention in 30 Years’ War • Religion: French marriage, relaxation of laws against Catholics, promotion of non-Calvinist clergy • Finances: Parl. refuses to grant revenues, king resorts to forced loans/imprisonment of those who refuse to pay • Politics: attempt to impeach chief advisors, assassination of the Duke of Buckingham, passage of the Petition of Right, 1628 • Resolutions condemning extra-Parliamentary taxation and “innovations in religion”, 1629

  32. II. CHARLES I (1600-1649; r. 1625-1649) A. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT • Downward spiral in 1st 3 parliaments (1625-1629) • Period of Personal Rule (Eleven Year Tyranny -- 1629-1640) – Charles bids to establish a Continental style absolutism; political grievances mount • Increasing resort to non-Parliamentary sources of revenue • Increasing encroachment on local governments • Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford was chief architect

  33. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT • Religious Dimension • Growing tensions between Puritans and Anglican establishment (headed by King and Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud) • Attempt to introduce Book of Common Prayer in Scotland, 1637 • Stool riot, 1637 • Scottish National Covenant, 1638 • 1st Bishops’ War, 1639 • 2nd Bishops’ War, 1640

  34. Revolutionary Era 1. Short Parliament (4/13 to 5-5/1640) -- forced by Bishops’ War; dissolved after only 3 weeks following a barrage of criticism of king 2. “Long Parliament” (11/3/1640 to 1660) • Dismantles apparatus of absolutism (1st phase: to 10/1641) • Triennial Act – Parl. must meet at least every 3 years • Act of Dissolution – Long Parl. not to be dissolved w/o its own consent • Tunnage and Poundage Act – limited king’s revenue to 2 months at a time; abolished Ship Money • Abolish Court of Star Chamber and of High Commission

  35. Revolutionary Era • “Long Parliament” (11/3/1640 to 1660) • Dismantles apparatus of absolutism (1st phase: to 10/1641) • Parliament divides; Charles ties to exploit breakdown of Puritan consensus • Issue of religious reform • Presbyterians (Root and Branch party) – want a “national church” organizationally • Independents – reject “national church” in favor of total congregational autonomy • Political issue: Grand Remonstrance: Nov. 1641 • Parliament demands control of King’s ministers • Parliament demands control of the army

  36. Revolutionary Era 3) Charles’ response • “By God, not for an hour.” • Attempt to arrest Pym and other opposition leaders – Jan.4, 1642 • Charles and family leave London for Nottingham on Jan. 10 • Royalist party in Parliament sets up rival parliament in Oxford

  37. C. THE WAR -- Roundheads (London Parliament and its army) vs. Cavaliers (King's army and Oxford Parliament)

  38. CHARLES I AT BATTLE OF NASEBY JUNE 14, 1645 Oliver Cromwell

  39. “Final Solution” to Charles I • Cromwell and Army now in control • Pride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering Westminster • The Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s Purge • Organized trial of Charles I

  40. TRIAL& EXECUTION OF CHARLES I JAN. 30, 1649

  41. “Final Solution” to Charles I • Cromwell and Army now in control • Pride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering Westminster • The Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s Purge • Organized trial of Charles I • Restructured English government

  42. Restructuring of Government • Abolition of the Monarchy • Abolition of House of Lords • Proclamation of “THE COMMONWEALTH” • Republic in form • Military dictatorship in reality • “Disestablishment” of CHURCH OF ENGLAND • RELIGIOUS TOLERATION FOR ALL PROTESTANTS