Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005)

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# Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005). Aircrew Tasks. O-2004 USE A POD TABLE (P) P-2021 DISCUSS HOW ATMOSPHERIC AND LIGHTING CONDITIONS AFFECT SCANNING EFFECTIVENESS (S) P-2025 DISCUSS COMMON SEARCH TERMS (S)

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Presentation Transcript
• O-2004 USE A POD TABLE (P)
• P-2021 DISCUSS HOW ATMOSPHERIC AND LIGHTING CONDITIONS AFFECT SCANNING EFFECTIVENESS (S)
• P-2025 DISCUSS COMMON SEARCH TERMS (S)
• P-2026 IDENTIFY WHAT TO LOOK FOR AND RECORD DURING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT MISSIONS (S)
Objectives
• In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area. {P; 9.2.1 & 9.2.2}
• Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain. {P; 9.2.3}
• Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns. {P; 9.2.4}
Objectives
• Optional – Review POD Example {9.3}
Objectives
• Define the following search terms: {S; 9.1}
• Ground and Search Track
• Maximum Area of Possibility
• Meteorological and Search Visibility
• Probability Area
• Probability of Detection (POD)
• Scanning Range
• Search Altitude
• Track spacing (S)
Objectives (Con’t)
• Discuss how a disaster can effect CAP operations. {S; 9.4.1}
• Discuss the types of questions you must always be asking yourself during damage assessment missions. {S; 9.4.5}
• List typical things you are looking for during a damage assessment mission. {S; 9.4.5}
• List the information you should obtain when over a damage assessment site. {S; 9.4.5}
• Discuss the limitations of an air search for a missing person. {S; 9.5}
Search Terms
• Ground track is an imaginary line on the ground that is made by an aircraft’s flight path over the ground
• Maximum Area of Possibility is normally a circular area centered at the search objective’s last know position, with certain corrections
• Meteorological visibility is the maximum distance at which large objects (e.g., a mountain) can be seen
• Probability Area is a smaller area, within the maximum area of possibility, where there is an increased likelihood of locating the search objective
• Probability of Detection (POD) is the likelihood, expressed in percent, that a search airplane might locate the objective
Search Terms
• Scanning range is the lateral distance from a scanner’s aircraft to an imaginary line on the ground, parallel to the ground track, that a scanner is expected to have a good chance at spotting the search objective
• Search Altitude is the altitude the aircraft will fly above the ground (AGL)
• Search track is an imaginary swath across the surface formed by the scanning range and the length of the aircraft’s ground track
• Search visibility is the distance at which an object on the ground can be seen and recognized from a particular height
• Track Spacing (S) is the distance between adjacent visual or electronic search legs
Narrowing the Search
• Search Involves
• Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors
• Determining the area to be searched
• Selecting the search techniques to be used
• Maximum Possibility Area
• Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP)
• The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft
• Correct for wind
• Probability Area
• Where is the aircraft likely to be
Search Altitudes & Airspeed
• Altitudes
• Maintain a minimum of 500 feet above the ground, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing). [Refer to CAPR 60-1 for special restrictions for over-water missions.]
• For SAR/DR/CD/HLS reconnaissance, the pilot will maintain at least 800 AGL.
• Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL or within 500 feet of any obstructions within a 1000' radius); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher.
• Airspeed
• No lower than Vx
Search Factors
• Factors which effect detection
• Weather; terrain; lighting conditions
• Sweep Width (W)
• Track Spacing (S)
• Coverage Factor (C)
• Probability of Detection (P)
• Determine factors for search area coverage
• Type and number of aircraft available
• Search visibility
• Probability Of Detection (POD)
Determining the Maximum Possibility Area

No wind endurance

Flight level winds: 330/20

Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts

Endurance: 2 Hours

40NM

LKP

200 NM

Wind vector

Corrected for wind

Maximum possibility area

Probability Area
• Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified?
• Is there an ELT?
• Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)?
• Dead reckoning from LKP and heading
• Reports of sightings
• Other aircraft
• People living along the intended route of flight
Narrowing the Probability Area
• Flight plan
• Weather information
• National Track Analysis Program data
• Airports along the intended flight track
• Aircraft performance
• Pilots flying habits
• Radar coverage as a limiting factor
• Nature of terrain along the flight track
• Position reports — fuel stops, etc.
• Most likely within 5 miles of intended track
Search Priorities
• Areas of bad weather
• Low clouds and poor visibility
• Areas where weather was not as forecast
• High terrain
• Areas not covered by radar
• Reports of low flying aircraft
• Survival factors
• Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls
Probability of Detection (POD)
• POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected
• Four interrelated factors used to calculate:
• Track Spacing
• Search Visibility
• Search Altitude
• Type of Terrain
• Cumulative POD calculated using a chart
• “Effectiveness” must also be considered

OPEN, FLAT TERRAIN

SEARCH ALTITUDE (AGL)

Track Spacing

SEARCH VISIBILITY

1 mi 2 mi 3 mi 4 mi

500 Feet

0.5 nm

35%

60%

75%

75%

1.0

20

35

50

50

1.5

15

25

35

40

2.0

10

20

30

30

700 Feet

0.5 nm

40%

60%

75%

80%

1.0

20

35

50

55

1.5

15

25

40

40

2.0

10

20

30

35

1,000 Feet

0.5 nm

40%

65%

80%

85%

1.0

25

40

55

60

1.5

15

30

40

45

2.0

15

20

30

35

POD Chart - detail
Cumulative POD Chart

Previous

POD

5-10% 15

11-20% 20 25

21-30% 30 35 45

31-40% 40 45 50 60

41-50% 50 55 60 65 70

51-60% 60 65 65 70 75 80

61-70% 70 70 75 80 80 85 90

71-80% 80 80 80 85 85 90 90 95

80+% 85 85 90 90 90 95 95 95 95+

5-10% 11-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% 51-60% 61-70% 71-80% 80+%

POD For This Search

Disaster Assessment
• Natural and man-made
• Examples of CAP services:
• Air and ground SAR services
• Air and ground visual and/or video imaging
• Flood boundary determination
• Air and ground transportation
• Courier flights
• Radio communications support
How Disasters Can Affect CAP Operations
• Effects of extreme weather
• Physical landscape may be so altered as to make maps obsolete or make navigation difficult
• Damage or destruction of area infrastructure
• Effects of biological, chemical or radiological terrorism (or accidental release)
Assessment
• Flying damage assessment sorties is not much different from our SAR search patterns
• The big difference is what you look for
• Should be asking questions such as:
• What is the geographical extent and severity of the damage?
• Is the damage spreading? If so, how far and how fast?
• How has access/egress been affected?
• What are the primary and secondary hazards?
• Is the disaster threatening critical structures or areas?
• Have utilities been affected or are they threatened?
• Can you see alternatives to problems?
Assessment
• Some specific things to be looking for are:
• Breaks in pavement, railways, bridges, dams, levees, pipelines, runways and structures
• Roads/streets blocked by water, debris or landslide
• Downed power lines
• Ruptured water lines
• Motorists in distress or major accidents
• Alternate routes for emergency vehicles or evacuation
• Distress signals from survivors
Assessment
• At each site, besides sketching or highlighting the extent of the damage and identifying access and egress routes, you should record:
• Latitude and longitude
• Description
• Type and extent of damage
• Photo number, or time reference for videotape
• Status and trends
Wide image of train wreck

Chemical spill (hazmat)