mission aircrew course chapter 9 search planning and coverage feb 2005 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005)

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 153 Views
  • Uploaded on

Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005). Aircrew Tasks. O-2004 USE A POD TABLE (P) P-2021 DISCUSS HOW ATMOSPHERIC AND LIGHTING CONDITIONS AFFECT SCANNING EFFECTIVENESS (S) P-2025 DISCUSS COMMON SEARCH TERMS (S)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005)' - lise


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
aircrew tasks
Aircrew Tasks
  • O-2004 USE A POD TABLE (P)
  • P-2021 DISCUSS HOW ATMOSPHERIC AND LIGHTING CONDITIONS AFFECT SCANNING EFFECTIVENESS (S)
  • P-2025 DISCUSS COMMON SEARCH TERMS (S)
  • P-2026 IDENTIFY WHAT TO LOOK FOR AND RECORD DURING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT MISSIONS (S)
objectives
Objectives
  • In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area. {P; 9.2.1 & 9.2.2}
  • Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain. {P; 9.2.3}
  • Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns. {P; 9.2.4}
objectives4
Objectives
  • Optional – Review POD Example {9.3}
objectives5
Objectives
  • Define the following search terms: {S; 9.1}
    • Ground and Search Track
    • Maximum Area of Possibility
    • Meteorological and Search Visibility
    • Probability Area
    • Probability of Detection (POD)
    • Scanning Range
    • Search Altitude
    • Track spacing (S)
objectives con t
Objectives (Con’t)
  • Discuss how a disaster can effect CAP operations. {S; 9.4.1}
  • Discuss the types of questions you must always be asking yourself during damage assessment missions. {S; 9.4.5}
  • List typical things you are looking for during a damage assessment mission. {S; 9.4.5}
  • List the information you should obtain when over a damage assessment site. {S; 9.4.5}
  • Discuss the limitations of an air search for a missing person. {S; 9.5}
search terms
Search Terms
  • Ground track is an imaginary line on the ground that is made by an aircraft’s flight path over the ground
  • Maximum Area of Possibility is normally a circular area centered at the search objective’s last know position, with certain corrections
  • Meteorological visibility is the maximum distance at which large objects (e.g., a mountain) can be seen
  • Probability Area is a smaller area, within the maximum area of possibility, where there is an increased likelihood of locating the search objective
  • Probability of Detection (POD) is the likelihood, expressed in percent, that a search airplane might locate the objective
search terms8
Search Terms
  • Scanning range is the lateral distance from a scanner’s aircraft to an imaginary line on the ground, parallel to the ground track, that a scanner is expected to have a good chance at spotting the search objective
  • Search Altitude is the altitude the aircraft will fly above the ground (AGL)
  • Search track is an imaginary swath across the surface formed by the scanning range and the length of the aircraft’s ground track
  • Search visibility is the distance at which an object on the ground can be seen and recognized from a particular height
  • Track Spacing (S) is the distance between adjacent visual or electronic search legs
narrowing the search
Narrowing the Search
  • Search Involves
    • Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors
    • Determining the area to be searched
    • Selecting the search techniques to be used
  • Maximum Possibility Area
    • Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP)
    • The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft
    • Correct for wind
  • Probability Area
    • Where is the aircraft likely to be
search altitudes airspeed
Search Altitudes & Airspeed
  • Altitudes
    • Maintain a minimum of 500 feet above the ground, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing). [Refer to CAPR 60-1 for special restrictions for over-water missions.]
    • For SAR/DR/CD/HLS reconnaissance, the pilot will maintain at least 800 AGL.
    • Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL or within 500 feet of any obstructions within a 1000' radius); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher.
  • Airspeed
    • No lower than Vx
search factors
Search Factors
  • Factors which effect detection
    • Weather; terrain; lighting conditions
    • Sweep Width (W)
    • Track Spacing (S)
    • Coverage Factor (C)
    • Probability of Detection (P)
  • Determine factors for search area coverage
    • Type and number of aircraft available
    • Search visibility
  • Probability Of Detection (POD)
determining the maximum possibility area
Determining the Maximum Possibility Area

No wind endurance

Flight level winds: 330/20

Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts

Endurance: 2 Hours

40NM

LKP

200 NM

Wind vector

Corrected for wind

Maximum possibility area

probability area
Probability Area
  • Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified?
  • Is there an ELT?
  • Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)?
  • Dead reckoning from LKP and heading
  • Reports of sightings
    • Other aircraft
    • People living along the intended route of flight
narrowing the probability area
Narrowing the Probability Area
  • Flight plan
  • Weather information
  • National Track Analysis Program data
  • Airports along the intended flight track
  • Aircraft performance
  • Pilots flying habits
  • Radar coverage as a limiting factor
  • Nature of terrain along the flight track
  • Position reports — fuel stops, etc.
  • Most likely within 5 miles of intended track
search priorities
Search Priorities
  • Areas of bad weather
  • Low clouds and poor visibility
  • Areas where weather was not as forecast
  • High terrain
  • Areas not covered by radar
  • Reports of low flying aircraft
  • Survival factors
  • Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls
probability of detection pod
Probability of Detection (POD)
  • POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected
  • Four interrelated factors used to calculate:
    • Track Spacing
    • Search Visibility
    • Search Altitude
    • Type of Terrain
  • Cumulative POD calculated using a chart
  • “Effectiveness” must also be considered
pod chart detail

OPEN, FLAT TERRAIN

SEARCH ALTITUDE (AGL)

Track Spacing

SEARCH VISIBILITY

1 mi 2 mi 3 mi 4 mi

500 Feet

0.5 nm

35%

60%

75%

75%

1.0

20

35

50

50

1.5

15

25

35

40

2.0

10

20

30

30

700 Feet

0.5 nm

40%

60%

75%

80%

1.0

20

35

50

55

1.5

15

25

40

40

2.0

10

20

30

35

1,000 Feet

0.5 nm

40%

65%

80%

85%

1.0

25

40

55

60

1.5

15

30

40

45

2.0

15

20

30

35

POD Chart - detail
cumulative pod chart
Cumulative POD Chart

Previous

POD

5-10% 15

11-20% 20 25

21-30% 30 35 45

31-40% 40 45 50 60

41-50% 50 55 60 65 70

51-60% 60 65 65 70 75 80

61-70% 70 70 75 80 80 85 90

71-80% 80 80 80 85 85 90 90 95

80+% 85 85 90 90 90 95 95 95 95+

5-10% 11-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% 51-60% 61-70% 71-80% 80+%

POD For This Search

disaster assessment
Disaster Assessment
  • Natural and man-made
  • Examples of CAP services:
    • Air and ground SAR services
    • Air and ground visual and/or video imaging
    • Flood boundary determination
    • Air and ground transportation
    • Courier flights
    • Radio communications support
how disasters can affect cap operations
How Disasters Can Affect CAP Operations
  • Effects of extreme weather
  • Physical landscape may be so altered as to make maps obsolete or make navigation difficult
  • Damage or destruction of area infrastructure
  • Effects of biological, chemical or radiological terrorism (or accidental release)
assessment
Assessment
  • Flying damage assessment sorties is not much different from our SAR search patterns
  • The big difference is what you look for
  • Should be asking questions such as:
    • What is the geographical extent and severity of the damage?
    • Is the damage spreading? If so, how far and how fast?
    • How has access/egress been affected?
    • What are the primary and secondary hazards?
    • Is the disaster threatening critical structures or areas?
    • Have utilities been affected or are they threatened?
    • Can you see alternatives to problems?
assessment24
Assessment
  • Some specific things to be looking for are:
    • Breaks in pavement, railways, bridges, dams, levees, pipelines, runways and structures
    • Roads/streets blocked by water, debris or landslide
    • Downed power lines
    • Ruptured water lines
    • Motorists in distress or major accidents
    • Alternate routes for emergency vehicles or evacuation
    • Distress signals from survivors
assessment25
Assessment
  • At each site, besides sketching or highlighting the extent of the damage and identifying access and egress routes, you should record:
    • Latitude and longitude
    • Description
    • Type and extent of damage
    • Photo number, or time reference for videotape
    • Status and trends
wide image of train wreck
Wide image of train wreck

Chemical spill (hazmat)