Fundamentals of Nursing NUR 101 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fundamentals of Nursing NUR 101

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    1. 1 Fundamentals of Nursing (NUR 101) Prepared by Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.Mcs. King Saud University- Aflaj College

    2. 2 Chapter 15 Bowel Elimination

    3. 3 Retention Enemas Oil-retention lubricate the stool and intestinal mucosa easing defecation. Carminative help expel flatus from rectum. Medicated provide medications absorbed through rectal mucosa. Anthelmintic destroy intestinal parasites. Nutritive administer fluids and nutrition rectally.

    4. 4 The Large Intestine Function Primary organ of bowel elimination. Extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Functions. Completion of absorption. Manufacture of some vitamins. Formation of feces. Expulsion of feces from the body.

    5. 5 Process of Peristalsis Peristalsis is under control of the nervous system. Contractions occur every 3 to 12 minutes. Mass peristalsis sweeps occur 1 to 4 times each 24-hour period. One-third to one-half of food waste is excreted in stool within 24 hours.

    6. 6 Variables Influencing Bowel Elimination Developmental considerations. Daily patterns. Food and fluid. Activity and muscle tone. Lifestyle, psychological variables. Pathologic conditions. Medications. Diagnostic studies. Surgery and anesthesia.

    7. 7 Foods Affecting Bowel Elimination Constipating foods: cheese, lean meat, eggs, pasta. Foods with laxative effect: fruits and vegetables, bran, chocolate, alcohol, coffee. Gas-producing foods: onions, cabbage, beans, cauliflower.

    8. 8 Effect of Medications on Stool Aspirin, anticoagulants pink to red to black stool. Iron salts black stool. Antacids white discoloration or speckling in stool. Antibiotics green-gray color.

    9. 9 Individuals at High Risk for Constipation Patients on bed rest taking constipating medicines. Patients with reduced fluids or bulk in their diet. Patients who are depressed. Patients with central nervous system disease or local lesions that cause pain.

    10. 10 Nursing Measures for the Patient With Diarrhea Answer bell calls immediately. Remove the cause of diarrhea whenever possible (e.g., medication). If there is impaction, obtain physician order for rectal examination. Give special care to the region around the anus. After diarrhea stops, suggest the intake of fermented dairy products.

    11. 11 Methods of Emptying the Colon of Feces Enemas. Rectal suppositories. Rectal catheters. Digital removal of stool.

    12. 12 Types of Enemas Cleansing. Retention. Return flow.

    13. 13 Bowel Training Programs Manipulate factors within the patient's control. Food and fluid intake, exercise, time for defecation. Eliminate a soft, formed stool at regular intervals without laxatives. When achieved, discontinue use of suppository if one was used.

    14. 14 The End