fundamentals of nursing n.
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  2. OBJECTIVES By the end of the lecture student should be able to: • Define nursing terminologies 2. Discuss character qualities of a nurse 3. Explain grooming pertaining to nursing

  3. OBJECTIVES CONT’D • Discuss qualities of a good nurse • List the roles nurses perform • Enumerate and discus members of the health team 7. Identify various ranks in the field of nursing

  4. DEFINITION OF TERMS NURSING • The concept of nursing is from a Latin word NUTRICA which means to nurture or nourish • Florence Nightingale also wrote that nursing is “the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery” (Nightingale, 1860).

  5. DEFINITIONS CONT’D • The action taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person and goals or outcomes of nursing actions. Nursing actions are typically viewed as a systematic process of assessment, labeling, planning, intervention and evaluation

  6. DEFINITIONS CONT’D NURSE • A person formally educated and trained in the care of the infirmed or the sick/disabled • Profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families and communities so they may attain, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life

  7. DEFINITIONS CONT’D • “The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible” (Henderson, 1966, p.3).

  8. DEFINITIONS CONT’D Profession • A vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply objective service to others • Formal qualifications based on education, apprenticeship and examination • Regulatory bodies- admit and discipline members

  9. DEFINITIONS CONT’D Professional • Member of a profession • Standard of education and training that prepares members of the profession with particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform that function • Professional standards and code of ethics

  10. DEFINITIONS CONT’D Philosophy • Knowledge level which specifies the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts in each of the conceptual models of nursing. • Nightingale is considered philosophical approach • Out of these philosophies theory maybe formalized

  11. DEFINITIONS CONT’D Vocation • An occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which he/ she is suited, trained or qualified

  12. DEFINITIONS CONT’D Career • Individual’s journey through learning, work and other aspects of life • Course or progress through life • Range of aspects of an individual’s life, learning or work

  13. THE NURSE AS AN INDIVIDUAL • Character • Temperament • Appearance • Qualities of a good nurse • Adaptation to clinical setting – Health team

  14. CHARACTER QUALITIES Honesty • High on the essential qualities for the nurse • Resist temptation to borrow from other people without permission • Exaggerate and misrepresent things in social conversations/situations • Report and record accurately

  15. CHARACTER CONT’D Dependability • Important in minor and serious matters • On time to the ward/personal assignments • Give best care whether you are being watched or not? • Control emotions in situations ofprovocations

  16. CHARACTER CONT’D Loyalty • Loyalty to yourself and others is an indication of emotional maturity. • Loyal to patients , respecting their confidences and avoiding gossips about or among patients • Loyalty can be fake or genuine • Loyalty can be misplaced

  17. CHARACTER CONT’D Ambition • Necessary in any vocation/profession • Are you eager to learn • Will you welcome opportunity to practice or observe skills not required of you

  18. CHARACTER CONT’D Resourcefulness • Its important to be able to know how to handle emergency as well as everyday situations

  19. CHARACTER CONT’D Wisdom • Exercise of good judgment in situations • Intelligent mind capable of further development • Know intuitively what to do in similar situations

  20. CHARACTER CONT’D Virtue • Its required for all professionals • Would you select friends of the opposite sex correctly • Moral courage to stand alone against any unacceptable behaviour in society

  21. CHARACTER CONT’D Tolerance • Respecting the rights and privileges of others in the family, work and the community

  22. TEMPERAMENTPersonality Traits • Relatively stable cognitive, emotional and behavioral x’tics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others. • Sanguine- cheerful, active • Phlegmatic- slow ,sluggish, apathetic

  23. Temperament CONT’D • Melancholic-sadness, depressed moody • Choleric- angry, irritable, excitable • Nurse is expected to be empathetic towards her clients

  24. APPEARANCE-PROFESSIONAL GROOMING Personal appearance • Neat and orderliness • Good personal relationships with clients whether endowed with beauty or not • Good grooming • Pleasant mannerisms • Friendly disposition • Compensate for any irregularity of features

  25. GROOMING CONT’D Posture • Adopt a good posture when walking, sitting and lying down • Posture will have a bearing on your health

  26. GROOMING CONT’D Face and Facial Expression • Discreet and skillful use of cosmestics • Its better to look natural as possible • Facial expression may be more important than physiognomy • Alert and intelligent expression • Pleasant look reflect serenity and self control • Boredom,confusion and mental confusion

  27. GROOMING CONT’D Skin • Wash your skin daily with soap and water • Bleaching of the skin should be avoided • Deodorant, antiperspirant and perfume takes away unpleasant odor-use in moderation • Shave any unsightly hair-

  28. GROOMING CONT’D Hair • Condition of the hair and style • Hair style will enhance your appearance • Interest, skill and good taste • Wash and oil hair frequently • Hair should be at shoulder length • Glamorous styles should be avoided

  29. GROOMING CONT’D Hands • Hands needs special attention – • Source of infection from one person to another • Wash hands frequently with soap& water • Hand lotion –smooth • No wearing of long and colourful nails • Wedding and engagement rings is allowed

  30. GROOMING CONT’D Care of Feet • Shoes should be low heel and broad base • Noiseless • No tight shoes- cones • Shoes should be in good condition

  31. GROOMING CONT’D Gait • Brisk in walking and appearance • No sluggishness

  32. GROOMING CONT’D Clothing • Clothes will influence the way people think about us • Social acceptance • Dress according to the standards of the profession you represent • Neat and immaculate-comform to school or your facility

  33. GROOMING CONT’D Earrings • Dangling earrings should be avoided • Small ones should be worn • Avoid them if you can when working

  34. GROOMING CONT’D Accessories • A pair of surgical scissors • Pens- • Breast pocket watch

  35. Things Not to Do • Smoking and drinking on duty • Chewing gum or cola • Unwashed and ironed uniforms should be avoided • Shirts should not be left unbuttoned • Uniforms should not be above the knees

  36. Qualities of A Good Nurse • Great communication skills • Emotional Stability • Empathy • Flexibility • Attention to details • Interpersonal skills • Physical endurance • Problem solving skills • Quick response • Respect

  37. Roles and Functions • Traditional roles of the nurse is care and comfort • Expanded roles of the nurse • Health promotion and illness prevention

  38. 1. CARE GIVER • Helps client regain health through the healing process • The nurse uses a holistic approach to give care to the clients • The care giver helps the client and family set goals and met those goals with minimal cost of time and energy

  39. 2. CLINICAL DECISION MAKER • Uses critical thinking skills through the nursing process • The nurse makes the decisions alone or in collaboration with the client and family or with other health care prefessionals

  40. 3.CLIENT ADVOCATE/PROTECTOR • Help to maintain a therapeutic environment that will protect the clients from possible injury • Protect the client from possible adverse effects of diagnostic or treatment measures • Protect the client’s legal and human rights

  41. 4. MANAGER • Co-ordinates the activities of other members of the health team • Manage own time and resources of the setting • Direct , organize and control the care • Help other members in their career paths • Manager of client care or case manager • Delegate care responsibilities and supervise

  42. 5.REHABLITATOR • Assist client’s to return to maximum function • Adapt fully as possible • Teaching clients to cope with changes associated with illness or disability that the individual is having

  43. 6. COMFORTER • Traditional role of the nurse • Provides comfort and emotional support • Help reach therapeutic goals rather than emotional and physical dependence

  44. 7. COMMUNICATOR • Communication is central to all other nursing roles • Clear communication leads to effective nursing • Critical in meeting the needs of clients, families and the community

  45. 8. TEACHER • Explain s concepts and facts about health care to the client • Reinforces learning and evaluate • Teaching is individualized and can be formal or informal • Supervision and training of other health care professionals including students

  46. CAREER ROLES • Increase educational opportunities • Expanded roles • Different kinds of career opportunities

  47. 9. NURSE- EDUCATOR • Work in schools of nursing • Staff development departments • Health care agencies • Background in clinical nursing-practical/theory • Teaching both theory and practicals

  48. 10. ADVANCE PRACTUCE NURSE • Master’s degree in nursing • Advance education in pharmacology/physical assessment • Certification and expertise in area of practice • Specialize in a disease condition or area • Work in Acute, primary, restorative and community care settings • Clinician, educator, care manager,researcher or consultant

  49. ADVANCE CONT’D • Clinical Nurse Specialist • Nurse Practitioner- out patient ambulatory or community based setting • Certified Nurse Midwife • Nurse Anesthetist • Nurse Administrator • Nurse Researcher

  50. 11. LEADERSHIP ROLE Duties which influences the actions of others • Deciding • Relating • Influencing • Facilitating • Delegating