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Ocean Structure and Circulation. Ocean Model. Temperature. Colder. Warmer. Surface. Depth. Deeper. Ocean Model. Ocean Model. “Warm” shallow surface layer. Transition Zone. Cold deep layer. How do the layers form?. Surface Layer. Transition Zone. Homogeneous Ocean. Deep Water.

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slide2

Ocean Model

Temperature

Colder

Warmer

Surface

Depth

Deeper

slide4

Ocean Model

“Warm” shallow surface layer

Transition Zone

Cold deep layer

How do the layers form?

slide5

Surface

Layer

Transition

Zone

Homogeneous Ocean

Deep

Water

slide6

Taking the Temperature

C

T

D

Conductivity

Temperature

Depth

www.soest.hawaii.edu

slide7

Ocean Temperature

Surface Layer

Thermocline = Temperature Change

Transition Zone

  • Deep Water
  • 90% of the total volume of ocean is this cold, deep water.
  • At depths greater than 1000m, temperature is approximately 4ºC (even in the tropics!!).

windows.ucar.edu

Why do layers form?

slide8

Because of Density

Mass per unit volume

Slashfood.com

Denser

1020-1028 kg/m3

Denser

19,300 kg/m3

Lighter

1000 kg/m3

Lighter

100 kg/m3

hawaiianphotos.net

slide9

Ocean Density

Surface Layer

Pycnocline = Density Change

Transition Zone

Pycnocline

  • Deep Water
  • Seawater density is controlled by Temperature and Salinity
  • In the ocean, Temperature has a greater effect on density

windows.ucar.edu

slide10

Surface

Layer

Transition

Zone

Thermocline & Pycnocline

Boundary

Deep

Water

slide11

Warmed and lit by sun

Mixed

Photosynthesis

Surface

Layer

Less Nutrients

Boundary

Cold, Dark, No Photosynthesis

, More Nutrients

Deep

Water

summary
Summary

Surface Ocean

Deep Ocean

Cold

Dark

No photosynthesis

More Nutrients

  • Warm
  • Lit by the sun
  • Has photosynthesis
  • Less nutrients