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Network Protocols. Objectives. Identify characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk Understand position of network protocols in OSI Model Identify core protocols of each protocol suite and its functions Understand each protocol’s addressing scheme. Introduction to Protocols.

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Network Protocols

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  • Identify characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk
  • Understand position of network protocols in OSI Model
  • Identify core protocols of each protocol suite and its functions
  • Understand each protocol’s addressing scheme
introduction to protocols
Introduction to Protocols
  • Protocol
    • Rules network uses to transfer data
    • Protocols that can span more than one LAN segment are routable
  • Multiprotocol network
    • Network using more than one protocol
multiple lan protocols
Multiple LAN Protocols
  • Advantage
    • Network can perform many different functions on same LAN
  • Disadvantage
    • Some protocols operate in broadcast mode, causing a significant amount of redundant network traffic
tcp ip and multiple server systems
TCP/IP and Multiple Server Systems
  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)
    • Most widely used protocol
    • Offers a suite of protocols
    • Protocol of the Internet
    • Supported by most network server and workstation operating systems
transmission control protocol internet protocol tcp ip
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Suite of small, specialized protocols called subprotocols

OSI Model


TCP/IP compared to the OSI Model

tcp ip compared to the osi model
TCP/IP Compared to theOSI Model
  • Application layer roughly corresponds to Session, Application, and Presentation layers of OSI Model
  • Transport layer roughly corresponds to Transport layers of OSI Model
  • Internet layer is equivalent to Network layer of OSI Model
  • Network Interface layer roughly corresponds to Data Link and Physical layers of OSI Model
the tcp ip core protocols
The TCP/IP Core Protocols
  • Certain subprotocols of TCP/IP suite
    • Operate in Transport or Network layers of OSI Model
    • Provide basic services to protocols in other layers of TCP/IP
  • TCP and IP are most significant core protocols in TCP/IP suite
internet protocol ip
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Provides information about how and where data should be delivered
  • Subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork
    • To internetwork is to traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router
    • In an internetwork, the individual networks that are joined together are called subnetworks
internet protocol ip11
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • IP datagram
    • IP portion of TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for data
    • Contains information necessary for routers to transfer data between subnets

Components of an IP datagram

internet protocol ip12
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • IP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of data
    • Connectionless
      • Allows protocol to service a request without requesting verified session and without guaranteeing delivery of data
transport control protocol tcp
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • TCP
    • Provides reliable data delivery services
    • Connection-oriented subprotocol
      • Requires establishment of connection between communicating nodes before protocol will transmit data
  • TCP segment
    • Holds TCP data fields
    • Becomes encapsulated by IP datagram
transport control protocol tcp14
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Port
    • Address on host where application makes itself available to incoming data

A TCP segment

additional core protocols of the tcp ip suite
Additional Core Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • Connectionless transport service
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    • Notifies sender of an error in transmission process and that packets were not delivered
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
    • Obtains MAC address of host or node
    • Creates local database mapping MAC address to host’s IP address
tcp ip application layer protocols
TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols
  • Telnet
    • Used to log on to remote hosts using TCP/IP protocol suite
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    • Used to send and receive files via TCP/IP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another, using the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
    • Manages devices on a TCP/IP network
addressing in tcp ip
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • IP Address
    • Logical address used in TCP/IP networking
    • Unique 32-bit number
      • Divided into four groups of octets (8-bit bytes) that are separated by periods
    • IP addresses are assigned and used according to very specific parameters
addressing in tcp ip18
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • Loopback address
    • IP address reserved for communicating from a node to itself
    • Value of the loopback address is always
  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    • Non-profit organization currently designated by U.S. government to maintain and assign IP addresses
addressing in tcp ip19
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • Static IP address
    • IP address manually assigned to a device
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    • Application layer protocol
    • Manages dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network
addresses and names
Addresses and Names
  • In addition to using IP addresses, TCP/IP networks use names for networks and hosts
    • Each host requires a host name
    • Each network requires a network name, also called a domain name
    • Together, host name and domain name constitute the fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
advantages of tcp ip
Advantages of TCP/IP
  • International language of network communications
  • Designed for use with wide range of network devices
  • Main protocol of most computer operating systems
  • Many troubleshooting and network analysis tools
  • Understood by a large body of network professionals
ipx spx
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
    • Protocol originally developed by Xerox
    • Modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for the NetWare network operating system

IPX/SPX compared to the OSI Model

ipx spx core protocols
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
    • Operates at Network layer of OSI Model
    • Provides routing and internetworking services
    • Similar to IP in TCP/IP suite
ipx spx core protocols26
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)
    • Belongs to Transport layer of OSI Model
    • Works in tandem with IPX to ensure data are received:
      • Whole
      • In sequence
      • Error free
ipx spx core protocols27
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
    • Works in Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport layers of OSI Model
    • Runs directly over IPX
    • Used by NetWare servers and routers to advertise to entire network which services they can provide
ipx spx core protocols28
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
    • Works within Presentation and Sessions layers of OSI Model
    • Works over IPX
    • Handles requests for services between clients and servers
addressing in spx ipx
Addressing in SPX/IPX
  • IPX address
    • Address assigned to a device on an IPX/SPX network
    • Contains two parts:
      • Network address (external network number)
      • Node address
netbios and netbeui
  • Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS)
    • Originally designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services
    • Adopted by Microsoft as its foundation protocol
    • Microsoft added Application layer component called NetBEUI
netbios and netbeui31
  • NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface
    • Fast and efficient protocol
    • Consumes few network resources
    • Provides excellent error correction
    • Requires little configuration
    • Can handle only 254 connections
    • Does not allow for good security
netbeui and microsoft windows servers
NetBEUI and Microsoft Windows Servers
  • NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
    • Developed by IBM in mid-1980s
    • Incorporates NetBIOS for communications across a network
    • Native protocol for Windows NT Server
    • Not routable; most suited for small LANs using older Microsoft or IBM operating systems
    • Corresponds with several layers of OSI model
why netbeui works well on microsoft networks
Why NetBEUI Works Well on Microsoft Networks
  • Simple to install
  • Handles large number of communication sessions on one network
  • Low memory requirements; can be quickly transported over small networks
  • Fast and efficient protocol
  • Consumes few network resources
  • Provides excellent error detection and correction
  • Requires little configuration
disadvantages of netbeui
Disadvantages of NetBEUI
  • Inability to route medium-sized and large networks; not enough information in NetBEUI frame to identify specific networks
  • Few network analysis tools
  • Does not allow for good security
netbios and netbeui compared to the osi model
NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model

NetBIOS/NetBEUI compared to the OSI Model

  • Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers
  • Originally designed to support peer-to-peer networking among Macintoshes
  • Can now be routed between network segments and integrated with NetWare- and Microsoft-based networks
  • AppleTalk networks are separated into logical groups of computers called AppleTalk zones
appletalk and mac os
AppleTalk and Mac OS
  • AppleTalk
    • Peer-to-peer protocol used on networks for communications between Macintosh computers
    • Connectivity supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows .NET, and NetWare Server
services of appletalk
Services of AppleTalk
  • Remote access to network files via AppleShare File Server Application
  • Printing services through AppleShare Print Server application
  • File services to DOS- and Windows-based systems via AppleShare PC application
appletalk and osi model
AppleTalk and OSI Model

AppleTalk protocol compared to OSI Model

appletalk subprotocols
AppleTalk Subprotocols
  • AppleShare
  • AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP)
  • AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP)
  • AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)
  • Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
  • Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
  • Zone Information Protocol (ZIP)
  • Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)
addressing in appletalk
Addressing in AppleTalk
  • AppleTalk node ID
    • Unique 8-bit or 16-bit number identifying a computer on an AppleTalk network
  • AppleTalk network number
    • Unique 16-bit number identifying the network to which a node is connected