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Data Collection

Data Collection

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Data Collection

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Data Collection Data is your friend

  2. For starters • What are some important things happening in this video related to research? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAfTHwVTOrY

  3. Interviews • Advantages • Establish rapport & enhance motivation • Clarify responses through additional questioning • Capture the depth and richness of responses • Allow for flexibility • Reduce “no response” and/or “neutral” responses

  4. Interviews • Disadvantages • Time consuming • Expensive • Small samples • Subjective – interviewer characteristics, contamination, bias

  5. Measures of Data Collection • Interviews • Questionnaires • Observations • Tests

  6. Measures KEY POINT: You must match the instrument to the research question!

  7. Questionnaires • Thoughts on those you responded to

  8. Questionnaires • Used to obtain a subject’s perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, values, opinions, or other non-cognitive traits

  9. Questionnaires • Scales - a continuum that describes subject’s responses to a statement • Likert • Checklists • Ranked items

  10. Questionnaires • Likert scales • Response options require the subject to determine the extent to which they agree with a statement • Debate over odd v. even number responses • Statements must reflect extreme positive or extreme negative positions • Example – CATS evaluations

  11. Questionnaires • Checklists • Choose options • Ranked items • Sequential order • Avoids marking everything high or low

  12. Questionnaires • Problems with measuring non-cognitive traits • Difficulty clearly defining what is being measured • Self-concept or self-esteem • Response set • Responding same way (Ex - all 4’s on CATS) • Social desirability • “PC filter” • Faking • Agreeing with statements because of the negative consequences associated with disagreeing

  13. Questionnaires • Controlling problems • Equal numbers of positively and negatively worded statements • Alternating positive and negative statements • Providing confidentiality or anonymity to respondents

  14. Designing Questionnaires • Online resources • www.surveymonkey.com • http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=3 • http://www.peecworks.org/PEEC/PEEC_Inst/I0004E536 • http://www.statpac.com/surveys/

  15. Observations • Observations - direct observations of behaviors • Provide first hand account (ameliorates issues of self-reporting in questionnaires) • Natural or controlled settings • Ex – classroom vs. lab (child attachment studies) • Structured or unstructured observations • Ex – frequency counts vs. narrative record • Detached or involved observers

  16. Observations • Inference • Low inference - involves little if any inference on the observers part • On-task/Off-task behavior instrument • High inference - involves high levels of inference on the observers part • Teacher effectiveness – PDE form 430

  17. Observations • Controlling observer effects • Observer bias • Training • Inter-rater reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) • Multiple observers • Contamination - knowledge of the study influences the observation • Training • Targeting specific behaviors • Observers do not know of the expected outcomes • Observers are “blind” to which group is which

  18. Observations • Observer effects • Halo effect - initial ratings influence subsequent ratings • Hawthorne effect - increased performance results from awareness of being part of study • Leniency - wanting everyone to do well • Central Tendency - measuring in the middle • Observer Drift - failing to record pertinent information

  19. Examples to critique • Measures • Questionnaire – Psychological School Membership Survey used with middle school students • Interview protocol – for teachers & counselors regarding professional development issues • Observation instrument – PDE 430 for student teachers • What are 2 benefits and 2 limitations of this measure?