Adjectives How many adjectives can you think of to describe this photo (noun)?
This photo is __________. • bright, incredible, sparkly, colorful, detailed, unique, green, crisp, entertaining, beautiful, freaky, recent, majestic, amazing, mind-bending, National Geographic, unbelievable, creepy, bizarre, electric, scientific, tremendous, orange, spectacular, award-winning, professional, brilliant, educational, lucky, confusing, creative, inspiring, intriguing, complex, stunning, dynamic, spirited, one-of-a-kind, lively, special, rectangle, precise, digital, focused, impressive, December This is a/an __________ photo.
What is an adjective? • An adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. • It describes or tells: • which one: this, that, these, those (demonstratives) • what kind: e.g. green, funny, wide, intense • how many: many, several, four, two-thousand.
Where are adjectives used? • 1) Adjectives can come before or after nouns: the new car/that car is new • 2) Adjectives can come after linking verbs: that car looks new (predicate adjectives) • Linking verbs do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information about the subject. • e.g. be, become, seem, look, appear, feel, grow, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, turn etc. (I am happy because the car smells new.) • 3) They can be modified by adverbs: I am insanely happy about my new car!
The most commonly used adjectives: articles and demonstratives • Indefinite articles: a, an. • They refer to someone or something in general: a boy; an idea. • Use a before a word beginning with a consonant and an before a word beginning with a vowel. • Exceptions: • The silent “h” (an honest error; an honorable death) • When "u" makes the same sound as the "y" in "you," or "o" makes the same sound as "w" in "won," then a is used(a united front; a one-legged man). • Definite article: the. • The definite article indicates that the noun is a particular one (or ones) identifiable to the reader/listener: the ball; the computers. • Demonstrative adjectives: this, that, those, these. • They show whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer.
Adjectives in comparisons • Adjectives can be used to express degree of modification (of a noun). • The adjective forms are positive, comparative, and superlative. • This tree is tall. (positive)That tree is taller. (comparative)The last tree is the tallest. (superlative) • NOTE: some comparative and superlative forms, especially when they are formed from longer words, use the adjectives more and most: this is the most enlightening grammar lesson.
Proper adjectives • A proper adjective is adjective that is written with a capital letter. • They are often derived from proper nouns related to a specific person, people, place, language, or organized group. • Italian coffee(Italy) • Lutheran handbook (Luther) • Newtonian telescope (Newton) • Bulls jersey(Bulls) • Apple smartphone(Apple) • Pacific island (Pacific) • Hollywood stars (Hollywood) • Victorian era (Victoria) • In some cases a proper noun is converted into a proper adjective simply by adding suffixes –ian, -ese, -an, or –esque. In other cases, the spelling of the proper noun isn’t changed at all.
Order of adjectives • Multiple adjectives can describe a single noun: two young American students • Order is essential: the two young American students vs. young American two students vs. young the American two students • Determiners usually come first: articles, possessives, demonstratives, quantifiers, numbers. • Next, adjectives are ordered according to the following categories: • Opinion what you think about something: (silly, beautiful, horrible) • Size how big or small something is: (large, tiny, enormous, little) • Age how young or old: (ancient, new) • Shape (square, round, flat, rectangular) • Color (blue, pink, reddish, grey) • Origin/Proper Adj. (French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek) • Material what something is made from: (wooden, metal, cotton, paper) • Purpose what something is used for: (sleeping bag, frying pan)
Image sources • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Three_Trees_-_geograph.org.uk_-_65245.jpg • http://www.autocardesign.org/wp-content/uploads/Subaru-Impreza-WRX-STI-2011_1-587x389.jpg • http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/dragonfly-branch-rain/ • http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/speedster87322/Jerseys/IMG_0210.jpg
Practice for homework • Complete worksheet by 1/10/2010 (Tues.) • Read directions carefully • Number or highlight key instructions • Complete sample problems together