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Adjectives. Adverbs. Adjectives. Adjectives modify nouns. To modify means to change in some way Adjectives change nouns by limiting them, or distinguishing them from other nouns. Example: Cookie is a noun. We limit or change it when we modify it with an adjective: chocolate cookie

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adjectives

Adjectives

Adverbs

adjectives1
Adjectives
  • Adjectives modify nouns.
  • To modify means to change in some way
  • Adjectives change nouns by limiting them, or distinguishing them from other nouns.

Example: Cookie is a noun.

  • We limit or change it when we modify it with an adjective: chocolate cookie

enormous cookie

charlie’s cookie

adjectives2
Adjectives
  • Adjectives answer the following questions:
          • Which one?
          • What kind?
          • How many?
which one
Which one?
  • Finally! Here comes the last bus.
  • That child is something else.
  • These pretzels are making me thirsty.
  • The tall girl has no interest in basketball.
  • Joe’s bicycle only weighs three pounds.
  • We are a little worried about the smell emanating from your locker.
what kind
What kind?
  • I would like to give her a silverplatter.
  • They found lots of little bumps on the screen
  • Something wicked this way comes.
  • These southern counties are suffering from severe drought.

**As you can see, adjectives frequently immediately precede the noun they modify.**

how many
How many?
  • I ate three pieces of pizza last night.
  • He had some thoughts he wanted to share with me.
  • Many voters waited in line for hours to vote.
  • Thanks, but I already have enough hot chocolate.
  • Twelve children got perfect scores on their tests.
adjectives degrees of comparison
AdjectivesDegrees of Comparison
  • Adjectives can describe degrees of comparison.
  • Something can be cold, colder, or coldest.
  • Comparative is used to compare TWO things
  • Superlative is used to compare THREE or more things.
  • We usually use THAN with the comparative and THE with the superlative.
adjectives4
Adjectives
  • When making comparisons with THAN, do you end with the subject form or the object form?
    • Is she taller than me?
    • Or is she taller than I?
    • “She is taller than I” is the correct answer.
    • Why? The complete thought is “She is taller than I am.” We just leave out the verb in the second clause leaving us with the subject “I”
adjectives5
Adjectives
  • Some adjectives DO NOT allow for comparisons for reasons that should become obvious as you read the incomplete list below:
    • Fatal
    • Preferable
    • Complete
    • Impossible
    • Adequate
    • Ideal
    • Unique
adjectives6
Adjectives
  • Fewer or Less?
  • When comparing amounts, you have a choice between fewer or less.
  • If the amount is countable, use fewer.
    • Fewer drops of water (I can count drops.)
    • Less water (I can’t count water.)
    • Fewer minutes left (I can count minutes.)
    • Less time left (I can’t count time.)
adverbs
Adverbs
  • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
  • Adverbs answer the following questions:
      • When? (which includes how often?)
      • Where?
      • How? (which includes under what conditions?)
      • Why?
      • To what extent?
adverbs1
Adverbs
  • Many adverbs end in –ly

slowly, cautiously, ferociously

    • However, many adverbs DO NOT end in –ly

yesterday, now, very, quite

    • Also, some words that end in –ly are not adverbs

lovely, friendly, lonely (these are all adjectives)

SO BE CAREFUL!

adverbs that modify verbs
Adverbs that Modify Verbs
  • She danced beautifully. Beautifully tells us how she danced.
  • They failed spectacularly. Spectacularly tells us to what degree they failed.
  • They arrived in New York yesterday. Yesterday tells us when they arrived.
adverbs that modify adjectives
Adverbs that Modify Adjectives
  • The arrow came alarmingly close to the audience. Alarmingly is an adverb that modifies the adjective close.
  • It was terribly hot in the upper deck of the stadium. Terribly is an adverb that modifies the adjective hot.
  • The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. Boldly is an adverb that modifies the adjective spoken.
adverbs that modify other adverbs
Adverbs that Modify Other Adverbs
  • We frantically urged him to open the door more quickly. More is an adverb modifying the adverb quickly.
  • No one noticed her as she moved quite stealthily down the hall. Quite is an adverb that modifies the adverb stealthily.
good or well
Good or Well
  • If you are actively smelling or feeling something, use “well”.

“Your dog smells really well considering he’s not a hound dog.”

  • If you are referring to a state of being and not the active sense of smelling, use “good.”

“Your dog smells good after going to the groomer.”

  • If you are referring to your health, use “well”.

“I am feeling well again, after taking a few days off work.”

  • If you are describing your state of mind, use “good”.

“I feel good about my performance yesterday.”

bad or badly
Bad or Badly
  • If you are actively smelling or feeling something, use “badly”.

“Your dog smells badly considering he’s a bloodhound!”

  • If you are referring to a state of being and not the active sense of smelling, use “bad.”

“Your dog smells bad after swimming in the pond.”

  • If you are referring to the act of feeling something, use “badly”.

“Ever since I burned my fingertips, I feel badly.”

  • If you are describing your state of mind, use “bad”.

“I feel bad about what I said yesterday.”