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Literary Reading Basics Presentation 2: Content and Form Learning the POETICS of the TextLiterary Skills to read Early Hebrew History VanderEnde 2014 – HIST 5033 Johnson University
Overview: POETICS involves • Working in UNITS of Scripture • Basic shape of a UNIT • Ways to READ UNITS of Scripture • Value and Necessity reading UNITS • Literary Analysis of the CONTENT of the unit • The Mighty Deeds of God as Meta-Content of Scripture • Understanding the GENRE of the unit • Discovering the FORM (structure) of the Unit • Discovering the MOVEMENT or Drama of the text (narrativity) • Applying LITERARY features of the text • The impact of CONCRETENESS • The dynamics of AMBIGUITY • The implications of ANALOGY • The emotion of FIGURES OF SPEECH
God’s Manifested in 5 Mighty Historical Deeds Incarnation Israel Pentecost Creation New Creation
Teleological Structure - Climactic New Creation The Eternal Kingdom of our Lord Present Pentecost The Church Universal Incarnation Christ Ascended Exodus The Nation of Israel Creation The world as we know it
Finished But Still Evident In Process In An-ti-ci-pa-tion Intermediate Periods of Providence Christ Incarnate - Ascended The Church Universal The Nation of Israel The world as we know it New Heaven and Earth NOW Eternity to come Creation Exodus Incarnation Pentecost New Creation
Content of each UNIT refers to one of these mighty deeds Incarnation Israel Pentecost Creation New Creation Luke 24 Psalm 119 Epistleto Titus Gen. 11:1-9 Revelation 1-2
Various Genres Narrative = Hearing the Story what God did, does and will do – Sermon as Information - Story • Narrative – OT Historical – Gospels and Acts • Reveals the deeds/words of God and how humans respond to these deeds/words • Poetry – Psalter • Reveals how the faithful respond to God as the deeds/words of God are understood and lived out • Poetry – Wisdom and Epistles • Reveals how the faithful live and struggle as the deeds of God unfold in the midst of evil • Poetry – Prophets • Reveals how God responds to the forgetting of the words/deeds He manifested • Poetry – Apocalyptic • Reveals the end of the deeds of God and how the earth and her inhabitants relate to this ending Worship = Responding in Liturgy to what God did, does and will do – The Sermon as Worship Didactic = Application - how to live as believer and church in a broken world Prophetic = Understanding that God continues His work even without us. Repentance, Renewal and Hope Apocalyptic - Faith God will finish what He began – Suffering, Joy and Hope
Genre Structure LITURGICAL GENRE WISDOM GENRE PROPHETIC GENRE EPISTOLARY GENRE APOCALYPTIC GENRE REMEMBRANCE - Through Recital in Liturgy, Education and Proclamation Historical OT Books Gospels Acts
POETICS involves • Working in UNITS of Scripture • Understanding the GENRE of the unit • The CONTENT of the unit • Five mighty deeds • (Grammatical and Lexical Studies) • Literary power of words • Discovering the FORM (structure) of the Unit • Discovering the MOVEMENT or Drama of the text • Analyzing the General LITERARY features of the text • The impact of CONCRETENESS • The dynamics of AMBIGUITY • The implications of ANALOGY • The color of FIGURES OF SPEECH • Metaphor, Simile • Hyperbole • Metonymy etc.
Narrative Genre 10. Book Theological Insights Inter-Textual 9. Long cycle 8. Short Cycle 7. Story Syntax = Grammar Semantics = Hermenetutics Intra-Textual 6. Scenes and Acts 5. Events / Episodes Gen 25 4. Facts 3. Words / phrase Phonology Morphology 2. Syllables 1. Letters / Sounds Naar Fokkelman 'Dichtkunst' pg. 46
Poetic Genre 10. Psalms Theological Insights Inter-Textual 9. Collection 7. Poem Syntax = Grammar Semantics = Hermeneutics Intra-Textual 6. Stanza 5. Strophe Gen 99 4. Colon - Stichon 3. Words / phrase Phenology Morphology Semiotics 2. Syllables 1. Sounds Naar Fokkelman 'Dichtkunst' pg. 46
Get the Movement F A C T S EVENTS - EPISODES Intro Ending SCENES and / or ACTS B A
Get the Movement F A C T S EVENTS - EPISODES B SCENES and / or ACTS A B A
A One Scene Story – Gen 25:19-26 Determine the UNIT: Isaac 40 years old Sequence of Facts Three Episodes: Barrenness and Prayer Conception and Pregnancy Birth of Twins One Scene: Birth story of Jacob and Esau Determine the UNIT: Isaac 60 years old
The FORM - Structure 21 Now Isaac pleaded with the LORD for his wife, because she was barren; and the LORD granted his plea, and Rebekah his wife conceived. 22 But the children struggled together within her; and she said, "If all is well, why am I like this?" So she went to inquire of the LORD. 23 And the LORD said to her:"Two nations are in your womb, Two peoples shall be separated from your body; One people shall be stronger than the other, And the older shall serve the younger." 24 So when her days were fulfilled for her to give birth, indeed there were twins in her womb. 25 And the first came out red. He was like a hairy garment all over; so they called his name Esau. 26 Afterward his brother came out, and his hand took hold of Esau's heel; so his name was called Jacob. A Rebekah barren : prayer for children 20/1 B Conception – Violent pregnancy 22 X -The Oracle B’ ViolentDelivery of twins 24 A’ Naming of the children 25-26a
Structure! Summary • First Determine the unit – beginning and ending • Second Find the Large Structure (Acts in large story, scenes in normal length) • Third Find the sequence of events (episodes) in each scene - what is ‘happening’ – what is the ‘movement • Fourth Line up the facts of each event/episode and discover the interplay between the lines
FORM is the outward expression (manifesto) of the inward character / glory / meaning of what is observed through the senses. When form and inner content harmonize the form enhances the meaning and the meaning enhances the form. It is experienced as beauty, as goodness, as right, as purposeful, and above all, as meant by the Creator who blew His Spirit (character) in the human body (form), in the Scriptures See Thomas Dubay, The Evidential Power of Beauty, chapter 3
The FORM manifest the inward content / character / glory only partially. FORM both reveals and hides. It provides us with experiential knowledge and emotions, but points also to our limitations to know. FORM therefore intuitively points us to mystery, which leads us to humility and worship See Thomas Dubay, The Evidential Power of Beauty, chapter 3
Work sets Free in Auschwitz Former KGB headquarters in Riga FORM and CONTENT (meaning, purpose) may not harmonize, or even degrade one another. To put the wrong content in a good form is deceptive, to place good content in the wrong form is banal and thoughtless, to place wrong content in a wrong form is destructive and evil (though here the form and the content enforce one another)
Day 1-3 - Shaping 1 - LIGHT 2 - FIRMAMENT/SEA 3 - LAND Days 4-6 Filling 4 - LIGHT Bearers 5 - Birds / Fish 6 - Animals / Humans The SevenCreation Days The Earth was FORMLESS and VOID 7 - The SABBATH Day
The Fourth Day: The chiasm • And God said: Let there be lights . . . • To divide day-night • Let them be for signs/seasons - days/years • Lights in firmament to give light on earth • God made two lights • The greater to rule the day - • lesser to rule the night - starts • In the firmament to give light on the earth • To rule over day/night • To divide the light from darkness • And God saw it was good
Exercise • Find the form (structure) of Genesis 11:1-9 • Find the events and facts • What is the specific structure • Retell the content of this story in your own words • Use the inclusio • Use the structure – • the movement from episode to episode • The movement from fact to fact