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The Chemical Building Blocks of Life. Lecture #3. Biochemicals. These chemicals are known as organic molecules. Molecules – substances comprised of atoms. Organic molecules – substances comprised mainly of carbon atoms . Carbon atoms form the backbone of organic molecules.

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biochemicals
Biochemicals
  • These chemicals are known as organic molecules.
  • Molecules – substances comprised of atoms.
  • Organic molecules – substances comprised mainly of carbon atoms.
  • Carbon atoms form the backbone of organic molecules.
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Various groups of molecules that attach to the carbon backbone
    • Hydroxyl
    • Carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Phosphate
    • Methyl
major classes of organic molecules
Major Classes ofOrganic Molecules

Functional groups + carbon backbone = four major classes of organic molecules

1. Carbohydrates

2. Lipids

3. Proteins

4. Nucleic Acids

1 carbohydrates
1. Carbohydrates
  • Molecules that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
  • CHO occurs in a ratio of 1:2:1

3. Glucose is a good example C6H12O6

same formula different molecule
Same Formula – Different Molecule?
  • Other sugars have the same formula (C6H12O6) as glucose.
  • We call these molecules isomers.
  • Examples of isomers are fructose and galactose.
sugars simple complex
Sugars – Simple & Complex
  • Simple sugars (glucose) occur as single molecules called monosaccharides.
  • Simple sugar + simple sugar = disaccharide
  • Long chain of simple sugars = polysaccharide
function of carbohydrates
Function of Carbohydrates
  • Store energy – C-H bonds
  • Form structures
2 lipids
2. Lipids

1.Lipids (fats) comprised of 2 components

  • Glycerol – 3 carbon backbone (C-C-C)
  • Fatty acids
fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • All animal fats are saturated.
  • Most plant fats are unsaturated.
  • Fats serve the following purposes:

A. Energy storage

B. Cell membrane structure

3 proteins
3. Proteins
  • Proteins are comprised of amino acids.

AA—AA—AA—AA—AA—AA

  • There are 20 “common” amino acids.
  • All amino acids have the same formula:

R

H2N – C – C – OH

H O

how do proteins differ
How do proteins differ?
  • Length – 100 to 6,000 AA long
  • Composition – ratio of the 20 AA
  • Sequence – order of the AA

GLU—HIS—PRO

HIS—PRO—GLU

PRO—GLU—HIS

roles of proteins
Roles of Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Structural
  • Antibodies
  • Transport
  • Cell Recognition
  • Hormones
protein structure
Protein Structure
  • Primary -- sequence of amino acids (AA)
  • Secondary -- interactions between AA
  • Beta-pleated sheets
  • Alpha helix
protein structure1
Protein Structure
  • Tertiary – folding of the protein
  • Quaternary – combining 2 proteins together
4 nucleic acids
4. Nucleic Acids
  • Information storage devices of the cell
  • They can replicate themselves.
  • They are hereditary molecules.
  • There are two types of nucleic acids:
    • DNA– double stranded
    • RNA – single stranded
composition of nucleic acids
Composition of Nucleic Acids

1. Long strands of subunits called nucleotides

composition of a nucleotide
Composition of a Nucleotide
  • Nucleotide – three components

1. Phosphate group

composition of a nucleotide1
Composition of a Nucleotide
  • Nucleotide – three components

1. Phosphate group

2. A 5-carbon sugar

5 carbon sugar
5-Carbon Sugar
  • Two kinds of sugar

1. Deoxyribose -- found in DNA

2. Ribose – found in RNA

composition of a nucleotide2
Composition of a Nucleotide
  • Phosphate radical
  • A 5-carbon sugar
  • A nitrogenous base
two types of bases
Two Types of Bases
  • Purines

Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)

Double Ringed

  • Pyrimidines

Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) Uracil (U)

Single Ringed

base distribution
Base Distribution

DNARNA

Adenine + +

Guanine + +

Cytosine + +

Thymine + --

Uracil -- +

dna double stranded
DNA – double stranded
  • Base pairs A – T C – G
  • T – A – C – G – A – C
  • A – T – G – C – T – G
rna single stranded
RNA – single stranded
  • Uracil substitutes for thymine
  • T – A – C – G – A – C
  • A – U – G – C – U – G