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Human and Family Sciences 3763. Sandra A. Martin, M.L.I.S. Instructor of Library Services Health Sciences Resource Coordinator John Vaughan Library Room 305B – 918-444-3263. Knowledge is the Enemy of Disease Sir Muir Gray. Existing Knowledge C an Prevent Waste & Errors

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human and family sciences 3763
Human and Family Sciences 3763

Sandra A. Martin, M.L.I.S.

Instructor of Library Services

Health Sciences Resource Coordinator

John Vaughan Library Room 305B – 918-444-3263

knowledge is the enemy of disease sir muir gray
Knowledge is the Enemy of DiseaseSir Muir Gray
  • Existing Knowledge Can Prevent
    • Waste & Errors
    • Poor Patient Experience
    • Adoption of low value interventions
    • Failure to adopt high value interventions
sandra martin provides
Sandra Martin Provides….
  • Instruction
  • Research Assistance
  • Small Group Consulting
  • Database Searches
  • Collection Development (Selection of print and online books, audiovisuals, journals and databases)
  • Assistance with any health-related information need
  • Office Hours: Tuesday 10 am to 4 pm – Tahlequah
  • By Appointment: Thursday 1 pm to 5 pm - Muskogee
remote access
Remote Access
  • Enter NT-NSU user id and password to access the library’s electronic resources
  • Contact your instructor if you have problems with your user id or password
  • Contact Sandra to report other technical problems or for search assistance
interlibrary loan document delivery
Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery


Delivery of journal articles, books, and other items not owned by the library

Delivery of books, audiovisuals, and journal articles in the library’s print collection

Journal articles delivered electronically if possible

ILL Requests

Click on Interlibrary Loan link from Dietetics and Nutrition Web Page

Complete and submit the online registration form

Complete the online request form

Provide complete information about the journal article or book that you need. Indicate your status as a health professions student and include your contact information

If you have questions or need assistance, contact:

Donna Graham – x3243 –

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To provide a mechanism for students to access the most current dietetics and nutrition and health care information
  • To familiarize students with specific information resources and services to support the dietetics and nutrition curriculum
  • To familiarize dietetics and nutrition students with evidence-based health care and lifelong learning skills
overview of online resources
Overview of Online Resources
  • Research and Clinical Databases
  • e-Journals
  • e-Books
  • Consumer Health
  • Evidence-Based Information Retrieval
journal article databases
Journal Article Databases
  • CINAHL Plus w/Full Text, MEDLINE, and Science Direct are most frequently used resources to find journal articles on Dietetics and Nutrition topics.
  • Search this section when you need articles on subjects, e.g., child nutrition disorders, diet therapy, etc.
  • Databases in this section provide links to full text journal articles and other resources
  • You must start at the library’s Dietetics and Nutrition web page to access our subscribed full text
databases cinahl plus w full text
Databases - CINAHL Plus w/Full Text
  • CINAHL stands for Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
  • Core research tool that contains full text of hundreds of nursing and allied health journals
  • Use “CINAHL Headings” to search topics for best results, e.g., search “pediatric obesity” to find articles on “childhood obesity”
  • Follow links on Dietetics and Nutrition Web Page for Basic and Advanced Tutorials to get started
databases medline
Databases - MEDLINE
  • Premier biomedical database from the National Library of Medicine
  • Provides journal articles from 1946 to present in medicine, nursing, health care system, and allied health care practice, education, and research
  • Useful to find articles on the relation of nutrition disorders to medical problems, e.g. “intake of fruits and vegetables to prevent cardiovascular diseases”
  • Link to Tutorial from Dietetics and Nutrition Library Web Page
databases science direct
Databases – Science Direct
  • Scientific database produced by Elsevier
  • Provides journal articles from over 2,500 journals and chapters from almost 20,000 books in all life sciences disciplines
  • Useful to find full text articles on nutrition and dietetics topics in scientific journals across multiple disciplines
  • Contains full text of journals published by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
databases mosby s nursing consult
Databases – Mosby’s Nursing Consult
  • All in one resource provides full text of e-Journals, e-Books, images, and other documents
  • Unique features include full text from pre-searches of popular health topics, e. g., “cancer”, “heart disease”, “stroke” under the “top picks” option. Also includes full text monographs of all FDA approved drugs, and peer-reviewed patient education materials
  • Widely used in major hospitals and medical centers
  • Link to Tutorial from Dietetics and Nutrition Web Page
databases academic search premier
Databases – Academic Search Premier
  • Multi-disciplinary database that provides full text of over 4,600 journals
  • Useful as a starting point to find a variety of viewpoints on a general topic, e.g., nutrition across the life cycle
  • Limit search results to “full text”, “scholarly peer-reviewed” and “academic journals”
databases education full text
Databases – Education Full Text
  • Full text of over 350 journals
  • Includes coverage of special education and educational tests
  • Useful for nutrition topics related to children and young adults K-12
  • Includes full text back to 1996
databases social sciences full text
Databases – Social Sciences Full Text
  • Full text of over 600 journals
  • Useful for targeting “socioeconomic” aspects of nutrition topics, e.g., childhood obesity
  • Limit search results to “scholarly-peer reviewed”, “academic journals”
additional research databases
Additional Research Databases
  • National Library of Medicine – provides access to hundreds of databases covering a wide range of biomedical information resources
  • Native Health Databases – contains citations and abstracts of documents pertaining to the health care of North American indigenous peoples
tracking down the full text
Tracking Down the Full Text
  • If your database search does not provide a link to full text of a relevant article:
    • Print a list of the citations
    • Click on the Library e-Journals link on the Library’s Dietetics and Nutrition web page
    • Enter full title of the journal
    • Click on link to database that contains the full text
e books
  • R2 Digital Library – Nutrition and Dietetics books from the current Doody’s Core Titles in the Health Sciences
  • Books@Ovid - full text of health sciences books published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and other leading publishers
  • Access Medicine - text of leading medical and health sciences books from the McGraw-Hill clinical library
  • Mosby’s Drug Monographs - full text monographs for the health care professional and the patient of all FDA approved drugs
consumer health resources
Consumer Health Resources
  • Current, authoritative, peer-reviewed, and evidence-based resources written specifically for the layperson
  • MEDLINEPlus – the National Institutes of Health’s web site for patients and families
  • Joanna Briggs Database - provides full text consumer information sheets
  • Mosby’s Nursing Consult - includes patient education handouts produced by Elsevier
information retrieval for evidence based health care
Information Retrieval for Evidence Based Health Care
  • Using research findings versus conducting research
  • Retrieving and evaluating information that has direct application to specific patient care problems
  • Selecting resources that are current, valid and available at point-of-care
  • Developing search strategies that are feasible within time constraints of clinical practice
“Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values” Sackett DL, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS: Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996;312:71-2.



Best research





What is EBM?

ebm process 5 steps
EBM Process – 5 Steps
  • ASSESS - Begin with the patient encounter
  • ASK - clinical questions that address important patient problems
  • ACQUIRE - the best evidence to answer the questions (Use 4S Approach)
  • APPRAISE - Evaluate the evidence for validity, importance, and usefulness
  • APPLY - Does the evidence “fit” your patient’s specific problems and needs?

Practice the EBM process in daily patient encounters

clinical questions
Clinical Questions
  • Four common types:
    • Therapy/prevention
    • Diagnosis
    • Etiology
    • Prognosis
answerable questions
Answerable Questions
  • Select Questions That:
        • Are most important to the patient’s well being
        • Fill gaps in your clinical knowledge
        • Are feasible to answer in the time available
information retrieval to answer clinical questions requires new skills
Information Retrieval to Answer Clinical Questions Requires New Skills
  • Clinical question formulation
  • Search and retrieval of best evidence
  • Critical appraisal of study methods
is all evidence created equal
Is All Evidence Created Equal?
  • Small portion of medical literature is immediately useful to answer clinical questions
  • Understanding “wedge or pyramid of evidence” is helpful in finding highest level of evidence
  • High levels of evidence may not exist for all questions due to nature of medical problems and research limitations
As you move up the pyramid the amount of available literature decreases, but it increases in its relevance to the clinical setting.

Source:  Sackett, D.L., Richardson, W.S., Rosenberg, W.M.C., & Haynes, R.B. (1996). Evidence-Based Medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. London: Churchill-Livingstone.

evidence based retrieval
Evidence Based Retrieval
  • Find the answer that is supported by valid studies appropriate to the type of question and that is available in a timely manner
  • Requires search terms plus best study design for question plus highest level of evidence
therapy prevention question
Therapy/Prevention Question
  • What is the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of intake of fruits and vegetables to prevent cardiovascular diseases?
  • Find the answer that is supported by valid studies, appropriate to the type of question, and that is available in a timely manner.
1 possible search terms
1. Possible Search Terms
  • cardiovascular diseases, fruits and vegetables, prevention
evidence based databases critically appraised decision support tools
Evidence Based Databases – Critically Appraised Decision Support Tools
  • DynaMed – Expert summaries for over 3,000 topics to answer clinical questions at point of care. Based on studies evaluated for clinical relevance and validity. Updated daily
  • Cochrane Systematic Reviews – Over 900 full text reviews of research studies based on specific quality criteria and produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, an international network of researchers
  • Joanna Briggs Institute – International research organization provides full text of expert summaries, best practice information sheets, systematic reviews, and consumer information sheets
hierarchy of evidence based resources
Hierarchy of Evidence-Based Resources

Dynamed, Joanna Briggs

Joanna Briggs, Mosby’s Nursing Consult

Cochrane and Joanna Briggs Systematic Reviews

CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE

SOURCE: Haynes, R. B. (2001). Of studies, syntheses, synopses, and systems: the “4S” evolution of services for finding current best evidence. Evidence-Based Medicine, 6 (2), 36-38. Retrieved 2-07-07 from

  • Summaries for more than 3,000 topics
  • Monitors >500 medical journals and systematic review databases
  • Updated daily
  • Each article evaluated for clinical relevance and scientific validity
  • Recommendations labeled with Levels of Evidence
joanna briggs institute jbi
Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)
  • an international, not-for-profit research organization at the University of Adelaide
  • collaborates internationally with over 70 entities to promote synthesis and transfer of evidence
  • contributes to improving health care outcomes by supporting evidence-based practice
jbi database
JBI Database
  • Evidence Summaries – literature reviews that summarize existing literature on common health care problems
  • Evidence-Based Recommended Practices – procedures that recommend practice on clinical topics
  • Best Practice Information Sheets – guidelines produced for practicing health care professionals
  • Systematic Reviews – comprehensive reviews of international research literature
  • Consumer Information Sheets – summaries designed for patients, clients, and care providers
  • Updated weekly, access through Ovid
cochrane database of systematic reviews
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
  • Part of the Cochrane Library (1996)
  • 916 completed reviews, 1905 protocols
  • Among the highest level of evidence upon which to base treatment decisions – the Gold Standard
  • Includes Dx since 2008
  • Access through OVID
systematic review
Systematic Review
  • Analyzes data from several primary studies to answer a specific clinical question
  • Provides search strategies and resources used to locate studies
  • Includes specific inclusion and exclusion criteria (results in less bias)
  • Meta-Analysis (subclass) statistically summarizes results of several individual studies
  • Access Joanna Briggs and Cochrane Systematic Reviews through Ovid
life long learning
Life-Long Learning
  • Selecting and searching online databases is challenging
  • Information is ever changing
  • Contact Sandra (email preferred)
human and family sciences 37631
Human and Family Sciences 3763

Sandra A. Martin, M.L.I.S.

Instructor of Library Services

Health Sciences Resource Coordinator

John Vaughan Library Room 305B – 918-444-3263