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Going On the Air

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  1. Going On the Air Pages 79 – 87 By Joe Seibert

  2. Going On the Air • Choosing an operating frequency • You should listen to determine if the frequency is busy when selecting a frequency on which to transmit. • Calling CQ • You indicate you are looking for any station with which to make contact by calling CQ followed by your callsign. • The meaning of the procedural signal "CQ" is: Calling any station. • The brief statement, simply saying your call sign, is often used in place of "CQ" to indicate that you are listening for calls on a repeater.

  3. Calling another station • If you know the station's call sign, say the station's call sign then identify your own station when calling another station on a repeater. • You should transmit the other station’s callsign followed by your callsign when responding to a call of CQ. • You should avoid using cute phrases or word combinations to identify your station because they are not easily understood by some operators. • You should use the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) phonetic alphabet when identifying your station because the words are internationally recognized substitutes for letters.

  4. Calling another station • If you know the station's call sign, say the station's call sign then identify your own station when calling another station on a repeater. • You should transmit the other station’s callsign followed by your callsign when responding to a call of CQ. • You should avoid using cute phrases or word combinations to identify your station because they are not easily understood by some operators. • You should use the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) phonetic alphabet when identifying your station because the words are internationally recognized substitutes for letters.

  5. ITU Phonetic Alphabet

  6. Test transmissions • An illegal unidentified transmission describes a brief test transmission that does not include any station identification. • An amateur must properly identify the station when making a transmission to test equipment or antennas. • Station identification is required at least every ten minutes and at the end of every transmission.

  7. Use of minimum power • An amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communication. • This is the rule for: • Repeaters • Simplex • HF

  8. Band plans • A band plan is a voluntary guideline, beyond the divisions established by the FCC for using different operating modes within an amateur band. • Band Plans are voluntary guidelines for efficient use of the radio spectrum. • The amateur community developed the band plans used by amateur radio operators.

  9. A Band Plan is a voluntary guideline for using different operating modes within an amateur band. • 50.000-50.100: CW - No voice modes allowed per FCC section §97.305 • 50.060-50.080: CW/Beacon Subband • 50.100-50.300: Phone (SSB), etc. (no FM voice) • 50.100-50.125: DX Window • 50.300-50.600: All modes (simplex)50.600-50.800: Digital modes (e.g. Packet)50.800-51.000: Radio Control (R/C)51.000-51.100: "Pacific DX window" (SSB/CW)51.120-51.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (areas w/500 KHz split)51.500-51.600: Simplex FM, 6 channels: 51.500, 51.520, 51.540, 51.560, 51.580, and 51.60051.620-51.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs (areas w/500 KHz split)52.000-52.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (for 500 KHz and 1 MHz split) • Note: 52.525, 52.400, 52.040, and 52.020 are widely used for simplex operation with 52.525 being the "national simplex" frequency. • 52.500-52.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs53.000-53.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs and Repeater Outputs53.500-53.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs

  10. Repeater coordination • The recognized frequency coordination body is in charge of the repeater frequency band plan in your local area. • The main purpose of repeater coordination is to reduce interference and promote proper use of spectrum.

  11. Mode restricted sub-bands • The 6-meter, 2-meter, and 1-1/4-meter bands available to Technician class licensees have mode restricted sub-bands. • The only emission mode that is permitted in the restricted sub-band at 50.0-50.1 MHz is CW. • The only emission mode that is permitted in the restricted sub-band at 144.0-144.1 MHz is CW. • The emission modes that are permitted in the restricted portion of the 1-1/4-meter band are CW and Data.

  12. Authorized frequencies (Technician) • The frequency, 52.525 MHz, is within the 6-meter band. • The frequency, 146.52 MHz, is within the 2-meter band • The frequency, 223.50 MHz is within the 1.25 meter band. • The frequency, 443.350 MHz, is within 70-centimeter band • The frequency, 1296 MHz, is within the 23 Centimeter band • (sorry, you need to memorize these frequencies)

  13. Accountability • The transmitting station is accountable if a repeater station inadvertently retransmits communications that violate FCC rules. • Obscene • Ciphers not permitted • Unidentified communications

  14. Courtesy and respect for others • The proper way to break into a conversation between two stations that are using the frequency is to say your call sign between their transmissions. • Proper repeater operating practice: • Monitor before transmitting and keep transmissions short • Identify legally • Use the minimum amount of transmitter power necessary All of these choices are correct

  15. Courtesy and respect for others (cont) • Before responding to another stations call, make sure you are operating on a permissible frequency for your license class. • No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive use of any station and neither has priority. This rule applies when two amateur stations want to use the same frequency. • If you hear a newly licensed operator that is having trouble with their station you should contact them and offer to help with the problem. • When circumstances are not specifically covered by FCC rules the general operating standard of good engineering and good amateur practices must be applied to amateur station operation.

  16. Sensitive subject areas • Amateur radio operators should avoid the use of racial or ethnic slurs when talking to other stations because it is offensive to some people and reflects a poor public image on all amateur radio operators. • These types of subjects are not prohibited communications while using amateur radio: • Political discussions • Jokes and stories • Religious preferences All of these choices are correct.

  17. Obscene and indecent language • Indecent and obscene language is prohibited in the Amateur Service. • Because it is offensive to some individuals • Because young children may intercept amateur communications with readily available receiving equipment • Because such language is specifically prohibited by FCC Rules All of these choices are correct • There is no official list of prohibited obscene and indecent words that should not be used in amateur radio.

  18. Interference to and from consumer devices • The owner of the television receiver is responsible for taking care of the interference if signals from your transmitter are causing front end overload in your neighbor's television receiver. • The major cause of telephone interference is the telephone was not equipped with adequate interference protection when manufactured. • A break in a cable television transmission line may result in TV interference when the amateur station is transmitting, or interference may occur to the amateur receiver. • Receiver front-end overload is the result of interference caused by strong signals from a nearby source.

  19. Interference to and from consumer devices (cont) • Receiver front-end overload is the result of interference caused by strong signals from a nearby source.

  20. Public relations • RACES and ARES have in common the fact that both organizations provide communications during emergencies. • FCC rules apply to your station when using amateur radio at the request of public service officials or at the scene of an emergency.

  21. Intentional and unintentional interference • You should check your transmitter for off frequency operation or spurious emissions if you receive a report that your transmissions are causing splatter or interference on nearby frequencies. • The proper course of action if you unintentionally interfere with another station is to properly identify your station and move to a different frequency.

  22. Intentional and unintentional interference (cont) • You may never deliberately interfere with another station's communications. • No station has exclusive use of any specific frequency when the FCC has not declared a communication emergency. • The best way to reduce on the air interference when testing your transmitter is to use a dummy load when testing.

  23. Listen first, before transmitting • Looking for any station…call CQ • CQ means: Calling any station • On repeater, call sign instead of CQ • Calling another station • Their call sign and then your call sign • On a repeater and answering a CQ • ITU phonetic alphabet for identifying your station; avoid cute phrases

  24. Testing transmissions require identification • Unidentified transmissions are illegal • Even a brief test • ID required every ten minutes and at end of every transmission • Special events ID same ten minutes applies in addition to once an hour your own callsign

  25. Mode restricted sub-bands • 6-meter … CW • 2-meter … CW • 1-1/4 meter CW and Data

  26. Courtesy and respect on the air • Break into a QSO, by giving your callsign • Proper repeater practices: • Monitor/listen first keeping transmissions short • Identify legally • Use minimum transmitter power necessary All of these answers are correct

  27. Operate within limits of your license • No station has exclusive use of a frequency • Hear a new operator having trouble, offer to help • Not covered by rules: • General operating standard of good engineering • Good amateur practices (Must be applied to amateur station operation)

  28. Avoid use of racial or ethnic slurs • Offensive • Reflects poor public image • Subjects not prohibited: • Political discussions • Jokes and stories • Religious preferences All of these answers are correct

  29. Obscene language is prohibited • Because it’s offensive to some • Because young children may hear • Language specifically prohibited by Rules All of these choices are correct • No official list of prohibited words

  30. Front end overload responsibility is with the owner of the TV • Major cause of phone interference • Not properly equipped when manufactured • Cable TV cable break can cause • TV interference • Amateur receiver interference • Front-end overload is result of strong signals from nearby source

  31. RACES and ARES • Both provide communications during emergencies • F.C.C. rules apply to your station when using amateur radio at request of: • Public service officials • At scene of an emergency

  32. Splatter or interference reports from nearby frequencies • Check frequency • Spurious emissions • Unintentionally interfere: • ID properly • Move to a different frequency

  33. Deliberate interference … N E V E R • No declared communications emergency • No station has exclusive use of a frequency • Reduce on air interference • Test transmitter with a dummy load

  34. Going On the Air • Question and Answer Session

  35. T3A01 Which of the following should you do when selecting a frequency on which to transmit? • Call CQ to see if anyone is listening • Listen to determine if the frequency is busy • Transmit on a frequency that allows your signals to be heard • Check for maximum power output

  36. T3A02 How do you call another station on a repeater if you know the station's call sign? • Say "break, break" then say the station's call sign • Say the station's call sign then identify your own station • Say "CQ" three times then the other station's call sign • Wait for the station to call "CQ" then answer it

  37. T3A03How do you indicate you are looking for any station with which to make contact? • CQ followed by your callsign • RST followed by your callsign • QST followed by your callsign • SK followed by your callsign

  38. T3A04 What should you transmit when responding to a call of CQ? • Your own CQ followed by the other station's callsign • Your callsign followed by the other station's callsign • The other station's callsign followed by your callsign • A signal report followed by your callsign

  39. T3A05What term describes a brief test transmission that does not include any station identification? • A test emission with no identification required • An illegal un-modulated transmission • An illegal unidentified transmission • A non-voice ID transmission

  40. T3A06 What must an amateur do when making a transmission to test equipment or antennas? • Properly identify the station • Make test transmissions only after 10:00 PM local time • Notify the FCC of the test transmission • State the purpose of the test during the test procedure

  41. T3A07 Which of the following is true when making a test transmission? • Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 15 seconds • Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 1 watt • Station identification is required only if your station can be heard • Station identification is required at least every ten minutes and at the end of every transmission.

  42. T3A08 What is the meaning of the procedural signal "CQ"? • Call on the quarter hour • New antenna is being tested (no station should answer) • Only the called station should transmit • Calling any station

  43. T3A09 Why should you avoid using cute phrases or word combinations to identify your station? • They are not easily understood by some operators • They might offend some operators • They do not meet FCC identification requirements • They might be interpreted as codes or ciphers intended to obscure your identification

  44. T3A10 What brief statement is often used in place of "CQ" to indicate that you are listening for calls on a repeater? • Say "Hello test" followed by your call sign • Say your call sign • Say the repeater call sign followed by your call sign • Say the letters "QSY" followed by your call sign

  45. T3A11 Why should you use the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) phonetic alphabet when identifying your station? • The words are internationally recognized substitutes for letters • There is no advantage • The words have been chosen to represent amateur radio terms • It preserves traditions begun in the early days of amateur radio

  46. T3B01 What is a band plan? • A voluntary guideline, beyond the divisions established by the FCC for using different operating modes within an amateur band • A guideline from the FCC for making amateur frequency band allocations • A guideline for operating schedules within an amateur band published by the FCC • A plan devised by a local group

  47. T3B02 Which of the following statements is true of band plans? • They are mandated by the FCC to regulate spectrum use • They are mandated by the ITU • They are voluntary guidelines for efficient use of the radio spectrum • They are mandatory only in the US

  48. T3B03 Who developed the band plans used by amateur radio operators? • The US Congress • The FCC • The amateur community • The Interstate Commerce Commission

  49. T3B04 Who is in charge of the repeater frequency band plan in your local area? • The local FCC field office • RACES and FEMA • The recognized frequency coordination body • Repeater Council of America

  50. T3B05 What is the main purpose of repeater coordination? • To reduce interference and promote proper use of spectrum • To coordinate as many repeaters as possible in a small area • To coordinate all possible frequencies available for repeater use • To promote and encourage use of simplex frequencies