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CM Research Comprehensive CM Course

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CM Research Comprehensive CM Course

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  1. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course National Center for Credibility Assessment FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  2. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • What research would you like to see NCCA accomplish? • Are you currently successful at identifying CM? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  3. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • 1. Honts, Hodes, & Raskin, 1985; Honts, Raskin, & Kircher, 1987 • 2. Honts, 1987; Honts & Amato, 2002 • 3. Gudijonsson, 1988 • 4. Elaad & Ben-Shakhar, 1991 • 5. Honts & Perry, 1992 • 6. Honts, Raskin, & Kircher, 1994 • 7. Honts, Devitt, Winbush, & Kircher, 1996 • 8. Honts & Amato, 2002 • 9. Elaad & Ben-Shakhar, 2009 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  4. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • Spontaneous Countermeasures • 1. Honts, Raskin, Kircher, Hodes, 1988 • 2. Otter-Henderson, Honts, Amato, 2001 • 3. Honts, Amato, & Gordon, 2001 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  5. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • What does all the research we’ve discussed suggest? • CM use is prevalent among guilty and innocent • Probably more innocent attempting CM • Only one study reveals innocent that perform CM will appear guilty • Tongue bites, toe presses, & mental arithmetic are the CM of choice • Multiple CM used by examinees FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  6. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • Barland, 1995 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  7. Dr. Barland’s 1995 Study Relevant Questions • TESA • Did you commit an act of espionage? • Did you commit an act of sabotage? • TESB • Did you take a secret document from the safe in Bill Jackson’s office? • Did you erase a tape in Bill Jackson’s office? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  8. 1995 Study TESAExaminer Decisions 95% (96) 50 91% 50 120 (41) 58% 16% 42% 28% (21) (19) 5% 10% (15) 4% (14) (5) (4) (5) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  9. 1995 Study TESBExaminer Decisions 76% (69) 84% 50 24% (37) 50 59% 24% 120 (29) 41% (23) (22) 22% 16% (16) 12% (11) (7) (6) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  10. Conclusions drawn from 1995 study • One hour of mental CM training will defeat a TES exam most of the time. • Barland discovered that the Pneumograph channel appeared to produce a signature that could be observed with proper training. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  11. CM ResearchComprehensive CM Course • Weatherman and Menges, 2001 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  12. 2001 Study - Research Questions • Can global analysis incorporating numeric analysis identify deceptive and non- deceptive examinees significantly better than numeric analysis alone in a mock crime TES format? • Can global analysis incorporating numeric analysis identify those deceptive individuals trained in and performing CMs? • If questions 1 & 2 affirmative, are there specific global criteria that led to the affirmative answer? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  13. DW Global Decisions (Combined TESA & B) 89% (150) 50 68% 50 (80) 119 33% 169 64% 53% 47% 36% (39) 11% (32) (26) (23) <1% (18) (18) (1) (1) (1) (0) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  14. PM Global Decisions (Combined TESA & B) 95% (160) 73% 50 50 (86) 119 168 28% 56% 57% 43% 44% (28) (28) (33) 5% (21) (22) <1% (8) (1) (0) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  15. Global Criteria used in the 2001 Study • 23 global criteria considered in the evaluation. • 9 global criteria used significantly more than others. • Some criteria for mental CM & other criteria to ID deceptive people. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  16. Common DenominatorsPneumograph • Any exaggerated breathing • Diverging/Converging tracings • Permanent change of baseline • Apnea • Hyperventilation FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  17. Common Denominator EDA • None • Occasionally observed the following: • EDA latency • Exaggerated EDA at DLCQ • Exaggerated EDA at DLCQ with consistent, significant responses at relevant questions in the cardiograph channel FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  18. Common DenominatorsCardiograph • Exaggerated cardiograph tracing too good to be true. • Cardiograph tracing that jump (sharp rise) at the DLC. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  19. Common Denominators Other Global Criteria • Suspiciously large DLC’s. • Massive Sac/Relevant responses. • Large variance between RQ’s. • Excessive GNT, plus rapid cardio rate. • Consistent, significant, timely responses at a RQ regardless of the numeric score? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  20. 2001 Study Problems • Study population skewed. • We chose not to make N.O. decisions. • 50 programmed innocent • 9 admitted to changing breathing to “help” the test. • 9 had friends who took part in the project prior to volunteering. • 6 numerically SR to espionage, both exams. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  21. Mental CountermeasureSignatures • The following are charts taken from Dr. Barland’s 1995 CM study using mental math (picking a number above 600 & counting backwards by threes) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

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  33. CM ResearchFuture Possibilities • Features Identification Project • Signature validation • CM replication study using TES format FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  34. Features Identification Project FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY/LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

  35. Features Identification Project FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY/LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

  36. CM ResearchBlock Summary • Non-government research suggest CM affect physiology causing false-negatives • Government research came to the same conclusion • Government research - Manipulated physiology leaves signatures unique to CM • Training can assist examiners in identifying CM signatures • Software unable to identify CM FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY