Chapter 07 Author: Lee Hannah
FIGURE 7.1 Four-Million-Year-Old Antarctic Shift. A crinoid, typical of current Antarctic marine communities. The circumpolar current formed around Antarctica 4 million years ago, resulting in major ecosystem changes. Sharks and bony fi shes were lost, resulting in proliferation of crinoids and ophiuroids (brittle stars). Photo courtesy of Jeff Jeffords.
FIGURE 7.2 Marine Range Changes. At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 12 species were found together along the Southern California coast that now are now nearly absent from the area. This plot shows the present southern and northern range limits (points) of species that were co-occurring in the shaded area at the LGM. From Roy, K., et al. 2001. Climate change, species range limits and body size in marine bivalves. Ecology Letters 4, 366 – 370.
FIGURE 7.3 Current Coastline Superimposed on Coastline at LGM and Coastline with Greenland/Antarctica Melted for Florida, Northern Europe, and Southeast Asia. Courtesy of William F. Haxby, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University.
FIGURE 7.4 Electron Micrograph of Foraminifera Tests. Reproduced with permission from Nature .
FIGURE 7.5 Depth of Mixing for CO2 in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The three color panels indicate depth of mixing along the transects mapped on the right. CO2 from human emissions mixes into surface waters more rapidly than deep waters. CO2 is poorly mixed in bottom waters in all three oceans, but is highest in North Atlantic waters where it is carried downward in thermohaline circulation. From Sabine, C. L., et al. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305, 367– 371.
FIGURE 7.6 Sea Surface Temperature Response to El Ni ñ o. Normal conditions (top) and El Ni ñ o conditions (bottom). In El Ni ñ o conditions, warm water pools more widely in the Tropical Pacific and water temperatures are higher in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, blocking upwelling along South America and in the Galapagos. Courtesy of Mark Bush. From Ecology of a Changing Planet, 3rd edition . Benjamin Cummings.
FIGURE 7.7 Calcite-Secreting Organisms. From Wikimedia Commons.
FIGURE 7.8 Aragonite-Secreting Organisms. Courtesy U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
FIGURE 7.9 Coral Photosynthesis Response to Temperature and Salinity. Temperature and salinity exert strong controls over growth and distribution of species. In this example, the photosynthetic response of corals to both temperature and salinity are shown. From Roessig, J. M., et al. 2004. With kind permission from Springer Business Media.
FIGURE 7.10 Turbidity Plume at Mouth of the Betsiboka River, Madagascar. Sediment plumes from large rivers such as the Betsiboka inhibit coral growth. Strong seasonal variation in turbidity can be noted. Courtesy of NASA.