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What did Cannizzaro Do? Developing a method that led to the determination of standard relative atomic masses, which allowed chemists to search for periodic trends among elements . History of the Periodic Table. What did Mendeleev do?. Discovered the periodic law

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history of the periodic table
What did Cannizzaro Do?

Developing a method that led to the determination of standard relative atomic masses, which allowed chemists to search for periodic trends among elements

History of the Periodic Table
what did mendeleev do
What did Mendeleev do?

Discovered the periodic law

Organized the elements according to increasing atomic mass and noticed that similar properties appeared periodically.

What is the periodic law?

The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

Demostrated in the periodic table because groups have similar chemical and physical properties and behavior

what did mosley do
Discovered that nuclear charge(atomic number) not atomic mass, should be the basis for organizing the periodic tableWhat did Mosley do?
how do the electron configuration within the same group compare
How do the electron configuration within the same group compare?

The configurations of the outermost electron shells of elements within the same group are the same. There are a number of exceptions to this rule, in the transition elements

what determines the length of each period in the periodic table
What determines the length of each period in the periodic table?

The length of a period is determined by the total number of electrons that can fill the outer sublevel of the elements of that period

slide6

What is the relationship between the electron configuration of an element and the periods in which that element appears in the periodic table

An element’s period corresponds to its highest occupied main energy level.

what information is provided by the specific location of an element
What information is provided by the specific location of an element?

The type of sublevel being filled in successive elements of that block

S block: groups 1 and 2

P block: groups 13-18 except He(s)

D block: groups 3-12

F block: lanthanide and actinide series

what are properties of the group 1 alkali metals
What are properties of the Group 1: Alkali Metals?
  • Extremely reactive
  • react vigorously with water
  • Silvery in color
  • Soft enough to be cut with a knife
  • All have 1 valence electron
what are the properties of group 2 alkaline earth metals
What are the properties of Group 2: Alkaline earth metals
  • Less reactive than group 1 elements
  • Harder, denser, stronger than group 1
  • Higher melting points than group 1
  • 2 valence electrons
what type of elements make up the p block of the periodic table
What type of elements make up the P block of the periodic table?

Nonmetals at the right

Metalloids on the stairs

Metals under the stairs: these metals are generally ahrder and more dense than the s block metals but softer and less dense than the d-block metals

what are properties of the group 17 halogens
What are properties of the Group 17:halogens?

Most reactive nonmetals

Fluorine is the most reactive of all nonmetals

React vigorously with most metals to form salts

Most electronegative elements.

what are the properties of the metalloids b si ge as sb te
What are the properties of the metalloids? B, Si, Ge, As, Sb,Te

Mostly brittle solids with electrical conductivities intermediate between those of metals (good conductors) and nonmetals (poor conductors)

what are the main group elements and what trends can be seen across periods of these groups
What are the main group elements and what trends can be seen across periods of these groups

s and p group elements

Decrease in atomic size

Increase in ionization energy

Increase in electron affinity

Decrease in cationic size

Decrease in anionic size

Increase in electronegativity

what is ion a charged atom or a charged group of bonded atoms
What is ion?A charged atom or a charged group of bonded atoms

What is ionization?

Any process that results in the formation of bonded atoms

What is first ionization energy?

The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.

What is second ionization energy?

The energy required to remove an electron from a 1+ ion.

how do the first ionization energies of main group elements vary across a period and down a group
How do the first ionization energies of main group elements vary across a period and down a group?

Increase across a period and decrease down a group.

Across a period, the increasing nuclear charge more strongly attracts electrons in the same energy level and makes them more difficult to remove

Down a group, the electrons to be removed from each successive element are in increasingly higher energy levels farther from the nucleus and are more easily removed

what is electron affinity
What is electron affinity?

The energy taken in or given off when an electron is added to an atom

Electron affinity values are either negative or positive. A negative sign shows that energy is given off and a positive sign show energy is taken in

what is the difference between a cation and an anion
What is the difference between a cation and an anion

Cation: positive ion and a metal

Anion: negative ion and a nonmetal

Cations are always smaller than the atoms they came from

Anions are always larger than the atoms they came from