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Periodic Table History

Periodic Table History

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Periodic Table History

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  1. Periodic Table History

  2. History of the Periodic Table:At the conclusion of our time together, you should be able to: List one of the earliest contributors to the discovery of the elements Explain triads and who developed this table of the elements Explain the law of octaves and who developed this table of the elements Explain the first real periodic table and who developed this table of the elements Mark a period, group, and the metal, nonmetal, metalloid areas of the periodic table

  3. ~350 B.C.- Aristotle 4 Elements Fire, Water, Air, Earth

  4. By 1700 - 14 elements were known

  5. ~1789- Antoine Lavoisier wrote the first extensive list of 33 elements.

  6. 1829 - Johann Dobereiner(German Chemist) noticed that Br, Cl, and I had similar properties and that Br’s atomic mass was between that of Cl & I. He found three other groups with similarities. He called these groups triads.

  7. Other Triads of Dobereiner: • Cl, Br, I • Ca, Sr, Ba • S, Se, Te • Li, Na, K

  8. Little Known Phobias!Baabaaphobia Fear of being fleeced

  9. 1864 - John Newlands(English Chemist) arranged the now known 62 elements from lightest to heaviest. He also noticed that every 8th element had similar chemical and physical properties. Their properties were repeating. This became known as Newland’s Law of Octaves. Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl

  10. 1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev(Russian Chemist) organized the elements by atomic mass also but made it into table form to help his students. Elements with similar properties were put into the same column. Considered the Father of the Modern Period Table!

  11. Mendeleev (cont.) • He left blanks where elements seemed to be missing. • There were places where heavier elements were put before lighter elements because of their properties: Te – I Co – Ni Ar – K (He felt the mistake was in measuring the mass and this would be corrected with further research.)

  12. The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)

  13. 1913 - Henry Moseley(English Chemist) arranged elements by atomic number. This gave rise to a new Periodic Law, “Properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.”

  14. Murphy's LawsofScience and Technology Technology is dominated by those who manage what they do not understand.

  15. Glenn Seaborg(1912-1999) • Discovered 8 new elements. • Only living person for whom an element was named.

  16. The Language of Chemistry • The elements, their names, and symbols are given on thePERIODIC TABLE • How many elements are there? • 117 elements have been identified • 90 elements occur naturally on Earth • Examples: gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon • 27 elements have been created by scientists • Examples: technetium, americium, seaborgium

  17. Periodic Table Terminology • Period/Series = horizontal rows  • Group/Family = vertical columns

  18. Metals • Located to the left of the staircase line • Characteristics • Lose electrons to form + ions (cations) • Shiny • Malleable • Ductile • Good conductors of heat & electricity • React with acid • Most metallic element = Fr (francium)

  19. Nonmetals • Located to the right of the staircase line • Characteristics: • Tend to gain electrons to form – ions (anions) • Dull • Poor conductors of heat and electricity • Brittle • Most reactive nonmetal = F (fluorine)

  20. Metalloids • Located on and below the staircase line except At, Po and Al. • Characteristics: • Tend to gain or lose electrons • Shiny and dull • Good and poor conductors of heat and electricity • Malleable and brittle

  21. History of the Periodic Table:Let’s see if you can: List one of the earliest contributors to discovery of the elements Explain triads and who developed this table of the elements Explain the law of octaves and who developed this table of the elements Explain the first real periodic table and who developed this table of the elements Mark a period, group, and the metal, nonmetal, metalloid areas of the periodic table

  22. Where are Periods, Groups, Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids?

  23. List one of the earliest contributors to discovery of the elements Explain triads and who developed this table of the elements Explain the law of octaves and who developed this table of the elements Explain the first real periodic table and who developed this table of the elements