Comprehensive Exam Review Click the LEFT mouse key ONCE to continue Group Work Part 2 Click the LEFT mouse key ONCE to continue The advantages of group work include Economy of Approach Interpersonal Power Effectiveness The Economy of Approach advantage is that
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Click the LEFT mouse key ONCE to continue
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the group structure is set up naturally to harness the interactions of each other and associated interpersonal power. Interpersonal power is attuned to many problems and needs where viewpoints and involvement of others is important, such as improving team functioning or helping members with a significant personal problem.
group work has been shown to be an effective and efficacious approach to providing help.
Researchers have demonstrated that group therapy, for example, is at least as effective an approach as individual therapy and, in some cases, more helpful.
sometimes the group method is not appropriate at all, but other methods (e.g., individual) are, while at other times, the wrong group work methodology might be applied (e.g., using group counseling in a work setting to attempt to produce improved productivity).
Recruiting and Screening strategies are very important for counseling, psychotherapy and psychoeducation groups.
Prospective members may be obtained through recruitment and marketing methods, BUT the group must be explained accurately and attractively in them.
Recruiting can occur through dissemination of fliers, postings, announcements in media, direct personal appeal, referral from case loads, and other ways - if done ethically.
Screening is the process through which the group leader determines before the group is started who is suitable to participate in the group.
The goal of screening is to appropriately match the group with prospective members.
Informed consent for participation in a group is always necessary.
Presenting informed consent information about the group should include description of
Member goals, past experience with groups and counseling, assessment of functioning, expectations for group, interest in participating, contraindicated factors (e.g., actively psychotic, homicidal or suicidal, or no social interest), and fit with time demands of group are all important considerations to be discussed in the informed consent process.
Group leaders and members should understand the importance of evaluating group performance and member progress, methods for evaluating accomplishment, and how to use data to improve group and group leader performance.
Group process and outcome evaluation are concerned with how the group is functioning (process) and with its effectiveness in promoting group and member goals (outcome).
Member evaluation should be focused on how members are involved (process) and on members’ goal accomplishment (outcomes).
Examples of process evaluation include assessment of members’ levels of participation or satisfaction with group.
Examples of outcome evaluation include assessment of perceptions of group effectiveness and behavior change.
Observe and identify group processes
Attend to and acknowledge member behavior
Clarify and summarize member statements
Open and close sessions
Impart information in the group
Model effective group leader behavior
Engage in appropriate self-disclosure
Give and receive feedback
The core competency skills for group work are to:
Ask open-ended questions
Empathize with group members
Confront members’ behavior
Help members attribute meaning to their
Help members integrate and apply learning
Demonstrate ethical and professional standards
Keep group on task for accomplishing goals
In group work, the group leader can encourage member participation and involvement by:
Maintaining eye contact
Asking open-ended questions
Using encouraging responses
Modeling effective in-group behaviors
Extending sensitive invitations to talk
Group process involves the events that occur within group sessions or meetings, with a focus on how participants interact with one another and/or the group work leader.
Group process skills include the group leader attending to
Influence is concerned with the effects of participation. It is evaluated by the group leader addressing questions, such as:
The group leader must also attend to how decisions are made in the group, including processes such as:
“Railroading” by one member or by a
small subgroup of members
“Ignoring” some group members’ input
Maintaining focus or wandering across
The task functions in a group are focused on goal accomplishment, staying focused, and getting thejob done.
The task functions are accomplished by attending to questions such as:
The maintenance functions are intended to promote cohesion and harmony in the group by attending to human relations and working relationships.
The maintenance functions are accomplished by attending to questions such as:
Group atmosphere refers to the general “personality” of the group, i.e., its climate.
Evaluating the group atmosphere involves ad-dressing questions such as:
Membership is concerned with member inclusion and exclusion in the group and with patterns of interaction.
“Level” of membership in the group is evaluated by addressing questions such as:
Feelings are an important part of all group life. They reflect the “emotional climate” of the group.
The feelings in the group are evaluated by addressing questions such as:
Norms are expectations, ground rules, and standards that emerge through interaction in the group and may promote or hinder the group and be either understood by group members or outside of their awareness.
Group norms are evaluated by addressing questions such as:
Attending to and acknowledging member behavior can serve as a potent encourager and reinforcer of desirable group members’ behaviors.
Clarifying and summarizing statements can help members to organize information and make it more understandable, thus alleviating the impact of members’ statements that are confusing and lead to “overload.”
Opening and closing sessions effectively is important for getting work started and for concluding it (or for linking it to the future).
Imparting information is an important skill and represents a therapeutic factor through which members can learn from information provided, especially in psychoeducation groups.
Leaders can assist member growth and change by demonstrating and modeling appropriate and effective behaviors, such as self-disclosure, asking open-ended questions, and feedback.
Self-disclosure is generally understood as a critically important type of information sharing in personal change groups; leaders should model effective and appropriate self-disclosure to members.
Open-ended questions (often beginning with What or How…?) are preferred in group work because they invite fuller responses.
Closed-ended questions invite brief replies and do not encourage self-disclosure or feedback.
Feedback also is generally accepted as a fundamental part of personal change group work.
Leaders can help members learn the value of feedback by demonstrating how to give and invite feedback from others.
Note that cultural sensitivity needs to accompany expectations about self-disclosure because it is not valued in some cultures.
Being empathic with group members forges a connection, showing them that the leader genuinely understands and cares for them.
Demonstration of empathy by leaders is especially important in the personal change groups of psychoeducation, counseling, and psychotherapy.
Confronting, i.e., addressing discrepancies in a member’s behavior, assists in helping members to better understand themselves and to grow and change.
Confronting does not mean attacking, being hostile, or aggressive. Rather, it is a constructive intervention that leaders can learn and apply with positive results in group work.
Attribution of meaning involves helping members to connect an emotional experience with cognitive understanding, sometimes called, “making sense of experience.”
Caring involves communicating to group members that the leader has empathy for them individually and collectively.
Emotional stimulation is a leader function that occurs when the leader catalyzes the groups’ “energy” to help move the group forward towards its goals.
The group leader’s executive function involves management and timing. It enables the group leader to help the group to maintain its focus and to continue to make progress towards its goals.
Integration involves connecting awareness, concepts, and skills gotten from the group to the respective members’ pre-existing repertoires.
Applying learning means transferring what was learned from the group situation to the “outside” world.
All groups have goals, and the leader should use executive functioning to help the group keep focused on its goals, i.e., to remain “on task.”
Keeping the group in the “here-and-now” is an important leader function in the attempt to stay on task; that is, to not allow the group to wander to past or external considerations.