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Forensic Pig Dissection

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  1. Forensic Pig Dissection What do you do with your pig when he loses his tail?

  2. Answer: • Take him to any 're-tail' store.

  3. Safety Procedures • You MUST use safety precautions during this lab! • Goggles and aprons must be worn at all times. • Gloves should be worn when handling the preserved specimens. • Clean your area and all dissection equipment Wash your hands when you finish the lab. • Your work station should be cleaner than the way you found it!!! • Report any broken or missing items to your teacher!

  4. Objectives • 1. Conduct an investigation of a fetal pig following an autopsy protocol. • 2. conduct an internal investigation of a fetal pig following an autopsy protocol. Examine tissues, organs systems and body fluids and note any abnormalities. • 3. compare and contrast the fetal pig heart and kidney to an adult pig heart and kidney. • 4. Observe slide sections of a lung, artery and vein, stomach , liver , kidney and reproductive tissues.

  5. The fetal pigs that we will use in lab were purchased from a Biological supply company. They obtain fetal pigs from processing plants - the unborn pigs are removed from the uteri of slaughtered sows. • They are NOT produced for this purpose only, they would be used as fertilizer or disposed of if not used for dissection purposes.

  6. The period of pregnancy (gestation) in pigs is about 17 weeks (compared to 40 weeks in humans). • The fetal pigs we will use in class are 3-4 weeks from birth. You will work in groups of 4 or 5 on the fetal pigs. Each group of students will be given a fetal pig to be used for the labs on pig dissection. • Attach a tag with your names (in pencil or sharpie) to one of the hind legs for future identification.

  7. Background • http://carolinascienceonline.com/page.php/resources/view_all?id=carolinatm_forensic_dissection_student_guide&full=1&w_size=1024&h_size=768

  8. Roles: • Prosector: (Forensic Pathologist) conducts the autopsy to determine the cause of death. • Diener: helps the prosector with the process. • Materials Manager: organizes and hands the dissection instruments to the Prosector and Diener. • Recorder: records all of the measurements and observations and includes them in the final report. • Assistant: helps any or all members of the team • All members are responsible for clean up!!

  9. Directional and Anatomical Terminology • Anatomists and morphologists rely on a set of terms to describe structural positions, These may not all be immediately obvious to you, so you should practice using them. The terms are generally presented to you in pairs, as terms are often used to indicate opposing directions.

  10. Anterior - near or toward the head • Posterior - near or toward the tail • Dorsal - referring to the back • Ventral - referring to the belly • Lateral - referring to the side • Median - referring to the midline • Cranial - referring to the head • Caudal - referring to the tail • Proximal - toward the attached end of a structure • Distal - toward the free end of a structure • Longitudinal - in the axis from head to tail • Transverse - across the longitudinal axis • Pectoral - chest or shoulder area • Pelvic - hip region • Inferior- toward or closer to the tail (caudal region) • Superior- toward or closer to the head region

  11. Anterior - near or toward the head

  12. Posterior - near or toward the tail or back

  13. Dorsal - referring to the back

  14. Ventral - referring to the belly

  15. Lateral - referring to the side

  16. Median - referring to the midline

  17. Cranial - referring to the head Caudal - referring to the tail

  18. Proximal - toward the attached end of a structure Distal - toward the free end of a structure

  19. Longitudinal - in the axis from head to tail

  20. Transverse - across the longitudinal axis • is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes.

  21. Pectoral - chest or shoulder area

  22. Pelvic - hip region

  23. Inferior- toward or closer to the tail (caudal region) Superior- toward or closer to the head region • As with vertebrate directional terms, superior and inferior can be used in a relative sense in humans, but can not be uniformly applied to other organisms with varying normal anatomical positions. For example, the shoulders are superior to the navel, but inferior to the eyes in humans. In any tetrapod, the shoulders are cranial to the belly, but caudal to the eyes.

  24. sagittal section • The sagittal section,or plane, divides the subject into left and right portions. Coronal/Frontal - bisects the front and back of the body

  25. Mid-sagittal • The mid-sagittalsection splits the subject exactly into left and right sides. Transverse/Horizontal/Axial - bisects the upper and lower body

  26. transverse • A transverse plane, also known as an axial plane or cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal (head and tail) portions.

  27. Directional Terms: • Anatomists rely on a set of directional terms to explain the orientation of subject material. Although some of the terms are unfamiliar, with practice they will become easier to use, and you will see that “proximal to” is lesser cumbersome than “up the extremity and closer to the middle of the body.”

  28. left and right • stated relative to the subject, not relative to the people viewing it

  29. anterior (cranial) • towards the front (head) of the animal

  30. posterior (caudal) • towards the back (tail) of the animal

  31. superior • higher on the subject- typically used on bipeds such humans

  32. inferior • lower on subject- also used on subjects such as humans

  33. dorsal • towards the back

  34. Ventral • towards the belly

  35. medial • towards the mid-sagittal section

  36. lateral • away from the mid-sagittal section

  37. proximal • towards the mid-sagittal section along a limb

  38. distal • away from the mid-sagittal section along a limb

  39. External Anatomy • The body consists of the following regions: head, neck, trunk, and tail. The 2 pairs of appendages present on the trunk are the fore legs and hind legs. The cord projecting from the ventral surface is the umbilical cord. This cord connects the fetal pig to the placenta within the uterus of the mother pig.

  40. External Anatomy Abdominal Thorax Head Sacral Head =yellow. Neck = Purple. Trunk = red. Tail = green

  41. External Anatomy

  42. Draw a pig’ external anatomy and include labels for the following: • Anterior - near or toward the head • Posterior - near or toward the tail • Dorsal - referring to the back • Ventral - referring to the belly • Cranial - referring to the head • Caudal - referring to the tail • Proximal - toward the attached end of a structure • Distal - toward the free end of a structure • Pectoral - chest or shoulder area • Pelvic - hip region • Inferior- toward or closer to the tail (caudal region) • Superior- toward or closer to the head region

  43. 2 Basic Anatomical terms Diagram showing 16 terms from the lab 37 pts 2pts each 5pts color • Anterior - near or toward the head • Posterior - near or toward the tail • Dorsal - referring to the back • Ventral - referring to the belly • Lateral - referring to the side • Median - referring to the midline • Cranial - referring to the head • Caudal - referring to the tail • Proximal - toward the attached end of a structure • Distal - toward the free end of a structure • Longitudinal - in the axis from head to tail • Transverse - across the longitudinal axis • Pectoral - chest or shoulder area • Pelvic - hip region • Inferior- toward or closer to the tail (caudal region) • Superior- toward or closer to the head region • 3 External anatomy: Diagram of head, neck, trunk, tail. color 5ptsLabel=Thorax, Abdomen, Sacral. What is inside and out of these sections? How can you tell male from female? Thorax (what is inside?) Abdomen (what is inside?) Sacral (what is here?)

  44. External Anatomy • draw a diagram of the main parts • Place the pig on its side in the pan and note that the body consists of the following regions: • head, neck, trunk, and tail. • The 2 pairs of appendages present on the trunk are the fore legs and hind legs. The cord projecting from the ventral surface is the umbilical cord. • This cord connects the fetal pig to the placenta within the uterus of the mother pig.

  45. External Anatomy Abdominal Thorax Head Sacral Head =yellow. Neck = Purple. Trunk = red. Tail = green

  46. The head bears the mouth and jaws, the snout (nose), the external nostrils (nares), the eyes, and the external ears. Feel the relatively thick neck in the fetal pig. This thickness is due to the presence of well-developed neck muscles that will eventually be used for rooting.

  47. The cranial portion of the trunk is called the thorax (chest) and is encased by the ribs. Feel the ribs under the skin and determine the posterior border of the thorax. The thorax contains the lungs, heart, and major blood vessels. • The fore legs are found in the thoracic region. The parts of each of these appendages as well as those of the hind legs (in the sacral region) are the upper leg, lower leg, wrist, foot, and toes (digits). • Examine the digits present on the legs and note that only 2 of the 5 digits found in most terrestrial vertebrates are present. The first toe (corresponding to our thumb) has been lost; the second and fifth toes are reduced, with only the third and fourth toes being fully developed.

  48. The caudal portion of the trunk is called the abdomen. • In contrast to the thorax, the ventral portion of the abdomen is soft. The umbilical cord is located near the posterior end of the abdomen. There are 2 rows of teats (mammary papillae), one on either side of the umbilical cord. The stomach, intestine, kidneys, and other viscera (soft internal organs) are found within the abdominal cavity.

  49. The sacral region includes the hind legs, pelvic bones, and their attachment to that area of the vertebral column. • The anus (posterior opening of the digestive tract) is located under the tail. • In female pigs, the vulva (openings of the reproductive and urinary tracts) is found just below the anus. • In male pigs, the external opening of the penis is located posterior to the umbilical cord. The scrotum (scrotal sacs) are found on either side of the midline of the anus.

  50. External Anatomy Abdominal Thorax Head Sacral