In the name of Allah, A Bismillah. In the form of a bird appearing to drink . Iran, second half of the 19th century .
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In the form of a bird appearing to drink
Gulzar is defined by Safadi (1979) in Islamic Calligraphy as the technique of filling the area within the outlines of relatively large letters with various ornamental devices, including floral designs, geometric patterns, hunting scenes, portraits, small script, and other motifs. Gulzar is often used in composite calligraphy where it is also surrounded by other decorative units and calligraphic panels.
In zoomorphic calligraphy, the words are manipulated and structured into the shape of a human figure, a bird, an animal, or an object. Safadi notes that Thuluth, Naskh, and Nasta'liq scripts are extensively applied to create such calligraphic compositions.
Tughra is a unique calligraphic device that is used as a royal seal. The nishanghi or tughrakesh is the only scribe specialized in writing Tughra. The emblems became quite ornate and were particularly favored by Ottoman officialdom.
Tunisia, probably Qairawan, early tenth century Gold and red ink on parchment dyed blue
Abbasid caliphate, ninth to tenth century Ink and gold on parchment
An Ottoman manuscript
By al-Qandusi, from his remarkable 12-volume Qur'an (completed 1849)
Collage. Arches surrounding inscriptions of thuluth script. Extract from the Dakhira of the Sharqawa
Alternation and juxtapositioning of a supple, cursive style with rigid, angular kufic lettering. The combination of stylized floral ornamentation, geometric interlacing and the richness of the polychrome treatment highlight the individual words and invocations.
Fragment of a page from the Qur'an, copied on colored silk.
A typical example
Signature by 'Arif Hikmat
The name of Allah.
Bringing a message to the mystic Abdelqadar Jilali, known as the 'White Hawk'. Calligram in relief on an unidentifiable ground.
The double letter lam and alif
With diacriticals in red, written on gazelle skin
From al-Qandusi's Qur'an
In mirror images, by Subail Anwar, Istanbul
A larger version of diwani.Composition by Muhammad 'izzat al-Karkuki
Star on the threshold, 1984