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Turf-Insect Management 2007 Turfgrass Inservice. Tom A. Royer Oklahoma State University. Managing Insect Pests (How to Achieve Success). Knowledge of production system Proper identification. Knowledge of biology and seasonal occurrence Proper monitoring and selection of controls.

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Turf-Insect Management 2007 Turfgrass Inservice


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    1. Turf-Insect Management 2007 Turfgrass Inservice Tom A. Royer Oklahoma State University

    2. Managing Insect Pests(How to Achieve Success) • Knowledge of production system • Proper identification. • Knowledge of biology and seasonal occurrence • Proper monitoring and selection of controls AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    3. Sampling Insect Pests(How to Achieve Success) • Disclosing solutions • Sod webworms, cutworms, short-tailed crickets • Flotation • Chinch bug • Cut square of sod • White grubs, billbugs • Pitfall trap • Ants, adult billbugs AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    4. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs • Larval stage of scarab beetles • Most destructive pest of turf, especially in the cool season and transition zones. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    5. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs • Larval stage of scarab beetles • Most destructive pest of turf, especially in the cool season and transition zones. • Cause direct damage, and collateral damage from predator activity. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    6. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs • White grubs in Oklahoma • Cyclocephala(Masked Chafers) • Phyllophaga(May and June beetles) • Cotinis(Green June beetle) • Popillia japonica(Japanese Beetle) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    7. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs (1-Year Life Cycle) Southern Masked Chafer • Grubs with1-year life cycle • Adults fly from June-July • Eggs hatch in early August, grubs reach full size by late August, feed through October Japanese Beetle AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    8. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs (Multi-year Life Cycle) • Various species in the Genus Phyllophaga • 1,2, 3-year lifecycles • Most of life spent as third instar grub • Control is directed at young grubs May-June Beetle AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    9. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsWhite Grubs Green June Beetle • Large beetle (1 inch) that flies during the day (June-July) • One year life cycle • Grubs make large holes in turf, don’t directly feed on roots, but “dig” tunnels • Larva crawl “on their back” AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    10. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsOther White Grubs • Black Turfgrass Ataenius • Oriental Beetle (NE) • Asiatic Garden Beetle (NE) • European Chafer (NE) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    11. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsIdentification of Grubs by Raster Setal Patterns Masked Chafer Phyllophaga June Beetle Japanese Beetle Green June Beetle Black Turfgrass Ataenius European Chafer AsiaticGarden Beetle Oriental Beetle AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    12. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsManagement of White Grubs • Inspect for injury, and count numbers per square foot • Check species, turf can tolerate more annual white grub numbers • Make sure chemical treatments are applied for maximum effectiveness (proper timing, moist soil conditions, irrigate after chemical treatment) Annual White Grub Phyllophaga AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    13. Thatch/Root-infesting PestsManagement of White Grubs • Why is looking at grub’s “butt hairs” important? Annual White Grub Phyllophaga AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    14. A Survey of Phyllophaga Species Associated with Oklahoma Golf Courses. Jake Doskocil1, Tom Royer1, Nathan Walker1, Greg Bell1, James Reinert2 1 Oklahoma State University 2 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station

    15. Results Figure 3 Flight period of Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala beetles collected from 7 golf courses in Oklahoma, 2004-05. (The checkered areas denote the peak flights) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    16. Results Figure 4 Flight period of Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala beetles collected from 7 golf courses in Oklahoma, 2006. (The checkered areas denote the peak flights) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    17. Peak Flight Periods for Phyllophaga found inhabiting Turf, 2004-06 Species Month • P. congrua April-May • P. crassisima May • P. ephilida June • P. submucida June-July • P. crinita July • P. torta September AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    18. Insecticide Recommendations for Control of White Grubs (commercial) • Arena clothianadin neonicotinoid • Dursban chlorpyrifos OP • Dylox, Proxol trichlorphon OP • Mach II halofenozide IGR • Merit imidacloprid neonicotinoid • Sevin carbaryl carbamate Product Active Ingredient Class AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    19. Insecticide Recommendations for Control of White Grubs (Homeowner) • Dylox Proxol trichlorphon (OP) • Merit imidacloprid (neonicitinoid)Bayer Advanced • Mach2 halofenozide (IGR)Scotts GrubEx • Sevin WP carbaryl (carbamate) Product AI and (classification) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    20. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) • Hunting billbug most common species in Oklahoma. • This may be an emerging problem over state. • Billbugs are a complex of species, still being determined. Hunting/Bluegrass Billbug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    21. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) • Adults measure ¼ to 7/16 inches. • They have the weevil “snout” are charcoal grey to black, with numerous punctations on the pronotum, and a distinct “Y” shaped smooth raised area just behind the head that is enclosed by a shiny, parenthesis-like mark on either side. Hunting/Bluegrass Billbug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    22. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) • One generation per year, but all life stages are often present. OW as partially mature larvae. • Adults emerge from April-June, but can be found year around. Will be seen walking across sidewalks in spring. • Will sometimes play “dead” when disturbed. • Egg laying extends through early summer. Hunting/Bluegrass Billbug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    23. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) Hunting/Bluegrass Billbug • Larva are damaging stage • Larvae plump, legless, somewhat “C” shaped, measuring 3/8 inches when full grown with a tan head capsule. • Can be found in the crown or root zone, just below the thatch. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    24. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) Hunting/Bluegrass Billbug • Eggs deposited in leaf sheaths, or feeding punctures in stems. • Eggs hatch in 3-10 days. • Larvae tunnel within the stem, boring into crown • Feeding produces dead areas in bermuda grass in spring, may affect sod “holding power”. • Damage sometimes mistaken for “winter kill”. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    25. Management of Billbugs • Early detection is difficult because young larvae are hidden within stems. • Adult activity in spring and again in late fall signals the existence of an active infestation. • Check dead spots for signs of frass in the stems, if stems are full of “sawdust” check crowns for larvae. • Pitfall traps can be used to monitor adults. • Properly managed bermudagrass can recover • Apply insecticide if necessary, preferably targeted at the adult, or use imidacloprid soon after adults become active in spring. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    26. Insecticide Recommendations for Control of Billbugs (commercial) • Arena clothianadin neonicotinoid • Allectus imid + bifenthrin neo+pyrethroid • Dursban chlorpyrifos OP • Dylox, Proxol trichlorphon OP • Merit imidacloprid neonicotinoid • Scimitar l cyhalothrin pyrethroid • Talstar bifenthrin pyrethroid Product Active Ingredient Class AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    27. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Chewing) • Green, brown or almost black, with a yellow inverted “Y” on the head capsule • Up to 1.5 inches, grow through 6 instars in as little as 21 days after hatching • Multiple generations. Adults will lay eggs in short turf. • Usually a pest in fall because the are not capable of OW in Oklahoma. Fall Armyworm AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    28. Management of Fall Armyworm • Control is more effective on small larvae • Look for “windowpaning” • Use of a flushing agent on lawn can provide an indication of infestation • Infestations more likely in the fall • Threshold is same as for cutworms (5 per square yard) AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    29. Insecticide Recommendations for Control of Armyworms (commercial) • Arena clothianadin neonicotinoid • Allectus imid + bifenthrin neo+pyrethroid • Dursban chlorpyrifos OP • Merit imidacloprid neonicotinoid • Orthene acephate OP • Scimitar l cyhalothrin pyrethroid • Sevin carbaryl carbamate • Talstar bifenthrin pyrethroid • Tempo cyfluthrin pyrethroid Product Active Ingredient Class AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    30. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Chinch bugs are true bugs (Hemiptera) that are pests of turfgrass. • Four species are important to turf production, two are serious pests (Hairy and Southern), and two others are occasional pests (Common and Buffalograss) Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    31. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Hairy chinch bug: • A serious pest of northern turfgrasses. • Adults are about 1/6 inches. Body is grayish-black and covered with fine hairs, the legs have a dark, burnt-orange tint. • Wings are shiny white, and make a bright white “X” pattern. • Nymphs are orange with a white stripe crossing the middle of their back, become more brown to blaci in color as they mature. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    32. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Southern chinch bug: • A serious pest of St. Augustinegrass lawns, feeds occasionally on bermudagrass, hahiagrass, centipedgrass and zoysia. • Adults and nymphs are nearly identical to hairy chinch bugs. • Two types occur, a long winged form and a short winged form. • Very common in SE Oklahoma where St. Augustine is grown Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    33. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Common and Buffalograss chinch bugs: • Occasional pests. Common mostly a pest of small grains and other field crops. Will occasionally attack Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fescue, bentgrass and zoysia. • Buffalograss chinch bug will only feed on buffalograss. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    34. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Life History • Two generations per year. • Overwinters as an adult in protected leaf litter, or “bunch grasses”. • Prefer hot, dry conditions. • Are very susceptible to fungus disease Beauveria bassiana. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    35. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Damage • Adults and nymphs cause damage by feeding with their piercing-sucking mouthparts. Damage results from fluid removal from the plant tissue, and from clogging of the conducting tissues. • Grass may turn yellow, then reddish-brown. Injury resembles drought damage, and often occurs in patches. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    36. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Control • Sample by “floatation” • Endophyte-resistant varieties of ryegrass are available for hairy. • Resistant varieties of St. Augustinegrass are also available for southern. • Thatch management is good cultural control • There are some natural enemies that exert good control of chinch bugs. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    37. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) • Control • Pesticide resistance is of concern with this pest. • They are sometimes difficult to control • Insecticides need to penetrate the thatch layer to be really effective. • Some time for control of overwintered adults (preventative) • Corrective control after eggs have hatched. Chinch Bug AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    38. Insecticide Recommendations for Control of Chinch bugs (commercial) • Arena clothianadin neonicotinoid • Allectus imid + bifenthrin neo+pyrethroid • Dursban chlorpyrifos OP • Orthene acephate OP • Scimitar l cyhalothrin pyrethroid • Sevin carbaryl carbamate • Talstar bifenthrin pyrethroid • Tempo cyfluthrin pyrethroid Product Active Ingredient Class AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    39. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) Bermudagrass/Zoyziagrass Mites • These mites are very small, nearly microscopic. They are known as eriophyid mites, also known as “gall forming” mites. • They are quite different from spidermites in appearance. They are small, sausage-shaped, white mites that are less than 1/100 of an inch long. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    40. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) Bermudagrass/Zoyziagrass Mites • These mites are often quite host specific. Bermudagrass mite uses bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass mite attacks zoysia. There is also a buffalograss mite that attacks……. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    41. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) Bermudagrass/Zoyziagrass Mites • These mites feed under the leaf sheaths of the plant. • Bermudagrass mite damage: • Stunting and shortening of nodes • Yellowing, twisting of foliage • Finally, they turn brown and die back to their origin on the stem of the plant. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    42. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) Bermudagrass/Zoyziagrass Mites • Zoisiagrass mite damage: • New leaf tips fail to emerge, creating a “buggy whip”. • Yellowing, twisting of foliage. • Plant stands become thinned, seed production is seriously affected. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    43. Leaf/Stem-infesting Pests (Sucking) Bermudagrass/Zoyziagrass Mites • Management options are somewhat limited. • Resistant varieties of bermudagrass or zoysiagrass are available. • Control with a miticide may provide temporary, and limited control. • Good cultural practices are of help with bermudagrass, but less so with zoysiagrass. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    44. Eriophyid Mites • Cultural Controls (Bermudagrass) • Close mowing height • Fertilizing and irrigating to promote rapid regrowth • (Zoysiagrass) • Cultural practices seem less useful. Currently, we know little of their biology, they appear, then disappear during the growing season. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    45. Eriophyid Mites • Resistant Varieties. • Bermudagrass varieties • FLoraTex • Midlawn • TifSport • Zoysiagrass varieties • Royal • Emerald • El Toro • Crowne AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    46. Nuisance Pest Shorttailed Cricket • Minor pest, due to its mound-building habits. • Adults are from 9/16 to 2/3 inches, brown with short wings. • Mounds may go down as much as 20 inches. • Adults remain in burrows by day, leaving at night. • Feed on grasses, but damage is negligible. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    47. Nuisance Pest Shorttailed Cricket • Overwinters as a large nymph. • Adults may appear in late March to begin mating. • Female lays a clutch of eggs in burrow, which hatch and mature into nymphs that disperse from the nest. AR/OK Turfgrass Shortcourse

    48. Turf-Insect Management 2007 Turfgrass Inservice Tom A. Royer Oklahoma State University