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Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield

Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield. Limiting Reagent. If you are given one dozen loaves of bread, a gallon of mustard and three pieces of salami, how many salami sandwiches can you make. The limiting reagent is the reactant you run out of first.

Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield

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1. Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield

2. Limiting Reagent • If you are given one dozen loaves of bread, a gallon of mustard and three pieces of salami, how many salami sandwiches can you make. • The limiting reagent is the reactant you run out of first. • The excess reagent is the one you have left over. • The limiting reagent determines how much product you can make

3. How do you find out? • Do two stoichiometry problems. • The one that makes the least product is the limiting reagent. • For example • Copper reacts with sulfur to form copper ( I ) sulfide. If 10.6 g of copper reacts with 3.83 g S how much product will be formed?

4. If 10.6 g of copper reacts with 3.83 g S. How many grams of product will be formed? • 2Cu + S ® Cu2S Cu is Limiting Reagent 1 mol Cu2S 1 mol Cu 159.16 g Cu2S 10.6 g Cu 2 mol Cu 63.55g Cu 1 mol Cu2S = 13.3 g Cu2S = 13.3 g Cu2S 1 mol Cu2S 1 mol S 159.16 g Cu2S 3.83 g S 1 mol S 32.06g S 1 mol Cu2S = 19.0 g Cu2S

5. OR… • Convert both grams to moles • Use the mole ratio to determine if you have enough of one reactant to use up the other. • Whatever you don’t have enough of is the limiting reactant

6. 1 mol Cu = 0.17mol Cu 10.6 g Cu 63.55g Cu Ratio of Cu to S is 2:1 1 mol S 3.83 g S = 0.12mol S 32.06g S 1 mol S 0.17 mol Cu = .08mol S needed 2 mol Cu We have enough S 2mol Cu .12mol S = .24mol Cu needed 1 mol S We do not have enough Cu

7. Your turn • If 10.1 g of magnesium and 4.7g of HCl are reacted, which would be the limiting reactant?

8. Your Turn II • If 10.3 g of aluminum are reacted with 51.7 g of CuSO4, which would be the limiting reactant?

9. Percent Yield • Measures the effectiveness of a chemical reaction • There are three types: • Actual yield- what you get in the lab when the chemicals are mixed • Theoretical yield- what the balanced equation tells you you should make. • Percent yield = Actual x 100 Theoretical • The closer to 100%, the more effective the reaction is. • Cannot exceed 100%- why?

10. Example • 6.78 g of copper is produced when 3.92 g of Al are reacted with excess copper (II) sulfate. • What is the actual yield? • What is the theoretical yield? • What is the percent yield? • 2Al + 3 CuSO4® Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu 6.78 g 3 mol Cu 1 mol Al 63.55 g Cu 3.92 g Al 2 mol Al 26.98g Al 1 mol Cu = 13.9 g Cu 6.78 x 100 = 48.7% 13.9

11. Your Turn • Methanol, CH3OH, can be produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. If 75.0g of CO reacts to produce 68.4g CH3OH, what is the percent yield of CH3OH?

12. Your Turn II • When calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is heated, it decomposes to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. When 2000.g of CaCO3 are heated, the actual yield of CaO is 1050.g. What is the percent yield?

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