MALAY PROJECT. GROUP MEMBERS: Ang Jin Hui Esther(2) Beh Ching Yee(4) Ng Wanwen Rose(24) CLASS: 2E. HISTORY of MALAY AKSARA First you will have to know what does AKSARA meant. 'Aksara' is the Malay word for 'alphabet' or 'system of writing'
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Ang Jin Hui Esther(2)
Beh Ching Yee(4)
Ng Wanwen Rose(24)
First you will have to know what does AKSARA meant.
'Aksara' is the Malay word for 'alphabet' or 'system of writing'
>In the Malay Archipelago, the significance of writing and literacy has a long history.
>the ability to read and write was very much revered and valued at that time.
>Scripts commanded great respect in traditional society as they were also associated with magical powers.
>With the arrival of Islam at the end of the 13th century, religious literacy emphasize on the importance of reading the Qur’an and other religious texts.
>The scripts used in the Malay Archipelago during the pre-Islamic era were Pallava (in Sanskrit), Kawi and Nagari.
>Pallava originated from the Brahmi script of the Asoka Empire (272–231 BC) in India.
>During the Gupta Dynasty (320–540 AD), the strong Buddhist influence spread their scripts to this region.
>By the 8th century, Kawi had developed from Pallava, while Nagari appeared as a variant of the Gupta script.
>As writing and knowledge were regarded as sacred during the pre-Islamic period, it was only the ruling class, learned men, court poets and traders who were literate.
Religious texts and scriptures were jealously guarded by the few who performed priestly functions.
>There isn’t any difference between using jawi or rumi as both are scripts that have been appropriated to represent the Malay language in writing.
>During the colonial period, jawi still predominated throughout the Malay Archipelago, particularly in the literary and artistic domains, Islamic theology, philosophy and mysticism, commerce and trade, as well as in feudal governance and laws.
>Over time, jawi was reserved primarily for religious writings only.
>Traders and intelligentsia of the Malay Archipelago have congregated in Singapore since 1819.
>Malay publishers, writers, educators, religious reformers and journalists made Singapore their base.
>These developments paved the way for a significant phase in the development of the Malay language, boosting the production of Malay works
>Today, script literacy is practiced and honored as a living tradition which includes Arabic script, for mastering religious scriptures, and romanised Malay script,
>it is an adapted Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language.
>Its development is linked with the arrival of Islam.
>It consists of mostly Arabic characters along with some extra characters unique to Jawi.
>The Jawi alphabet is one of the earliest scripts used for writing Malay. >Evidence of this is found in the Terengganu Inscription Stone (Batu Bersurat Terengganu), dated 1303 A.D. (702H by the Islamic calendar), whereas the earliest use of the Roman alphabet is found near the end of the 19th century.
>The Jawi script was the official script for Unfederated Malay States during British protectorate.
>Today, the script is used for religious and Malay cultural administration in Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Perlis and Johor. The Malays in Patani still use Jawi today.
Arabic alphabet for Malay (Jawi)
Comparing the malay language in latin alphabets and the jawi alphabets
Sample text in Malay (Latin alphabet)
Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan.
Sample text in Malay (Jawi alphabet)
>Kawi is a language from the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok. example of kawi language
>It is actually a literary language based on
Old Javanese, but heavily interlarded with
>The language has its own unique alphabets
for writing, including Old Kawi and Tulisan
Bali, a script that evolved from Pallava
>Kawi is extinct as a spoken language, but
is still used in Bali, Lombok and to some
extent in Java as a literary language.
>It is also the main language used for the
Lombok cultural practice of reading and
writing literature on the leaves of the
>The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today.
>It evolved from the western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, and was initially developed by the ancient Romans in Classical Antiquity to write the Latin language.
>During the Middle Ages, it was adapted to the Romance languages, the direct descendants of Latin, as well as to the Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, and some Slavic languages, and finally to most of the languages of Europe.
>With the age of colonialism and Christian proselytism, the Latin alphabet was spread overseas, and applied to Amerindian, Indigenous Australian, Austronesian, East Asian, and African languages.
Digraphs, trigraphs, and tetragraphs
>The Javanese script dates back to the 8th century and was based on the Pallava script of India.
>The earliest example of the Javanese script, called Kawi (written in the Malang inscription of East Java, dated 760 A.D using the Sanskrit language)
>earliest record in Old Javanese was first written in 804 A.D in the Sukabumi inscription.
>During the Kediri period (925-1250), the old Kawi script developed into the ‘later Kawi’ through combination with the scripts from East Java and later evolved to be used in the Majapahit period (1250-1450 A.D). (Herbert, p.127)
>In the 14th century, Islam arrived in the Malay Archipelago; as a result, the Arabic script was introduced into Java, but on a limited scale.
>Some examples of this earlier Arabic writing can be found on tombstones of the 14th century in North Sumatra and East Java where it was mainly used for religious purposes.
>The arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century, the Portuguese and the Dutch, did not have much influence on Javanese writing.
>Javanese still continued using the Kawi scripts until the beginning of 20th century because it is replaced by Roman scripts
>However, the Kawi scripts are still used nowadays among scholars and Wayang specialists.
The Malay language received more influence from English but retained more Arabic words, while the Indonesian counterpart received more influence from Dutch and retained more Javanese and Jakarta Malay.
>During the Late Modern Malay ( c1850 - 1957 ) ,Malay has absorbed numerous loan words from the colonists namely: Portuguese, Dutch and English.
>With the arrival of Western imperialism, specifically, that of the British, the role of the Malay language in officialdom began to diminish in the former Malay states of the Malay Peninsula, Singapore and Brunei.
In Sumatra (Indonesia), Malay as the language of administration was replaced by Dutch, whereas in Peninsula Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo, it was superseded by English.
Late Modern Malay incorporates loan words from Portuguese, Dutch and English.
Now we have to know which country influences the Malay aksara ….
>When the Indians set their feet on the Malay Archipelago, they brought along Vatteluttu or Pallava, an ancient Tamilscript from South India.
Thus it was the Indians who influenced the malay aksara
The earliest discovered writing of the Malay language dated back more than 1,600 years, around the 4th century. It was based on the Kutai Inscription of East Kalimantan written in Sanskrit with Indian scripts deriving from the Pallava scripts. This Pallava-based script is commonly considered to be the oldest form of Malay writing, and it continued in the Old Malay writing system.