Happy Monday Students! . Today: Turn in Position Papers Mini- Lecture Dresden SAC. Collateral Damage During WWII . London Blitz Tokyo Fire-bombing Dresden Bombing German City Attacked in the final months of the war 25,000-27,000 people killed.
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Happy Monday Students! Today: Turn in Position Papers Mini- Lecture Dresden SAC
Collateral Damage During WWII • London Blitz • Tokyo Fire-bombing • Dresden Bombing • German City • Attacked in the final months of the war • 25,000-27,000 people killed. • Raises questions about collateral damage during war.
Bombing of Dresden SAC Was the bombing of Dresden a justifiable military act? Instructions: Students closest to the board argue yes. Write your paragraph using evidence to support all claims. Students closest to the back wall argue no. claims. Share quotes. Discuss both sides Come to a consensus. Write your consensus paragraph using evidence to support your side and using quotes to address and refute the other side.
Today: Discussion of Collateral Damage Lecture on Operation Barbarossa Stalingrad DBQ Stalingrad Reflection EQs: Why did the Germans fail in their invasion of Russia? What was the impact of this invasion of citizen and soldier alike? Position Papers – MAKE SURE YOU GET THOSE IN ASAP. I will be grading everything over break. Thank you all for being patient and understanding! Good Morning My Lovelies
Bombing of Dresden Case Study – Collateral Damage Pro – Quotes Con – Quotes
Consensus - Thesis: The Bombing of Dresden was (not) (justified). Because Reason 1 – See evidence. Because Reason 2 – See evidence. Your consensus paragraph must also address the counter argument. While those who believe (the opposite of your argument) may argue Y (Quote as evidence of that argument) , they are wrong because Z (Your claim with quote as evidence).
Operation Barbarossa • Authorized by Hitler on 18 December 1940 • Largest invasion in the history of warfare. Germany used: • 3.8 million troops • 600,000 motor vehicles • 750,000 horses • High rate of fatalities: • 95% of all German Army casualties from 1941 to 1944 • Soviet (now allied) forces • 2.6-2.9 million troops • 65% of all Allied military casualties from the entire war • Germany captured over 3 million Soviet POWs • “Hunger Plan” – starved Soviet POWs.
Operation Barbarossa cont. Four Phases • Phase 1 – Frontier Battles (June-July 1941) • Hitler believed they had won the war after this short phase • Phase 2 – Battle for Smolensk (July – August 1941) • Germans begin to realize they are in for the long haul • Continue the push towards Moscow – Stalingrad • Phase 3 - Kiev and Leningrad (August- October 1941) • Success in Kiev and Leningrad emboldened Germans but used supplies and man power they didn’t have. • Took no prisoners • Phase 4 -Operation Typhoon(October - December 1941) • Attempted to take Soviet Capital of Moscow • Forces were almost equal but Germans were tired • Weather turned bad – made it hard for tanks and planes – even guns wouldn’t work • Worsened soldier moral
Happy Fog-Day Super Stars! Today: • The Olympics • Community Building Activity • Mini-lecture • Stalingrad mini-DBQ • Lecture- The War in Europe!
Group Discussion - In your groups – share your favorite Winter Olympics sport. What role/impact if any do you think the Olympics has on international politics? Make sure you write down your partners FULL name and their favorite sport – you will need it.
The Olympics and Hitler • 1936 The Nazi’s host the Olympics in Berlin • Remove Anti-Jewish signs around Germany for the event. • Goebbels – Hitler’s Propaganda minister -designs the first ever ‘running of the torch’ • Jessie Owens’ Black man sets record by winning three gold medals, Hitler sends him congratulations but not FDR.
Operation Barbarossa:What went wrong? • Initial success based on element of surprise. (BLITZKRIEG) • Underestimated the time it would take • Underestimated Soviet forces • Burned through supplies too early • Ran out of fuel – could not move enough troops • Got stuck in the mud/rain/ice/snow • Ill prepared for winter – clothes, food etc. • Problems for Germans elsewhere – Greece and Yugoslavia and North Africa – British and U.S. Forces are focused here.
Operation Barbarossa – Why? • Germany suffering a labor shortage – lack of supplies. • Ukraine and other Soviet territories were valuable agricultural holdings. – lack of food • Oil • Their high level of success so far – especially in France- fueled hubris among Hitler and his top officers. • Claimed they had intelligence regarding a Soviet plan to launch an offensive against Germany.
Stalingrad 1942-1943 • Part of the German Summer offensive code name Case Blue • Focus on more southern cities – attempt to avoid terrible weather and cut off port connections. • Stalingrad • Soviets had warning • Moved resources but not people out of the city • Used, “everyone who could hold a gun” to fight. • Germans would run out of supplies, food and ammunition • Stalingrad would be decisive turning point in the war. – Clear Soviet Victory • Of the nearly 110,000 German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 6,000 ever returned.
STALINGRAD DBQ: In your groups-use the documents to answer the questions – You may answer the questions in the lines provided or on a separate page in your notebook. Use quotes to support each claim (answer) you offer.
Allied Invasion of North Africa • 1942- Known as Operation Torch • Goal was to open more fronts against the Germans, thus weakening them further • Pressure from Soviets • Americans- FDR - wanted to use Operation Sledgehammer and attack mainland • Agreed to go forth with Winston Churchill’s plan to attack Africa • Goal here was to take Naval control of the Mediterranean sea.
Consequences of North Africa • French colonial forces aided the Allies in Algiers • Thus the Germans began to occupy all of France, including the previously allied Vichy Regime holdings. • Allies were successful – thus providing them with the position necessary to move north and invade Italy.
Casablanca January 1943 In Attendance: • U. President Franklin D. Roosevelt • British Prime Minister Winston Churchill • Free French forces, Generals Charles de Gaulle, and Henri Giraud. • Joseph Stalin had declined to attend, citing the conflict in Stalingrad • Key Decision- Casablanca Declaration of “UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER”
Allied Invasion of Italy • September 1943 • Popular support for the war in Italy is low. • Winston Churchill wanted to invade Italy following success in North Africa • Americans still wanted to attack France, but agreed to continue with the British plan • Came up from North Africa First took Sicily Successfully over-ran mainland Italy • German troops pulled out – Hitler saw protecting Germany and German oil stores as too important to continuing success.
Tehran November/December 1943 In Attendance: “The Big Three” • Joseph Stalin • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Winston Churchill All three had differing focuses coming into the conference by decided the main goal was to open more fronts against the Germans to weaken their forces. Also began to discuss post-war relations….
D-Day/Operation Overlord • Two Phases • British, Canadian and American troops • Airborne Assault • Landing of troops by Sea • Beaches of Normandy • Gold, Omaha, Juno and Utah Beaches • French resistance joined once they reached land • Germans were too spread out, didn’t have the troops to resist • Opened up entrance to mainland Europe
Yalta February 1945 In Attendance:The Big Three • Stalin • Churchill • FDR • Main focus was Post-War reorganization • Tensions arise between Stalin and FDR over prisoners of war and control of Poland • Last time all three men would meet….
War Ends in Europe • Soviets Invade Berlin • Mussolini is executed in Italy • April 28th, 1945 • Hitler Commits Suicide as the Allies close in on his bunker in Berlin • April 30th 1945 • Celebrated as V-E Day (Victory in Europe) • May 8th 1945
Potsdam July 1945 In Attendance: Joseph Stalin Churchill- then Clement Attlee Harry S. Truman Focus: Post war Relations How to punish Germany (learned from WWI) Division of Germany- East and West…. Terms of Peace in the Pacific…
Impacts of FDR’s Death… • Changed Soviet/U.S relations because relationship was no longer established between the two men. • Would FDR have dropped the bomb?