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EBI, September 24, 2010. Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels Production Elliott Campbell University of California, Merced. Liquid Biofuel. (EPA, 2010). Biopower. (EIA, 2010). Why Bioenergy?. Similarities to current energy system Near-term Cost effective Scalable

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Ebi september 24 2010

EBI, September 24, 2010

Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels ProductionElliott Campbell University of California, Merced


Liquid biofuel
Liquid Biofuel

(EPA, 2010)


Biopower
Biopower

(EIA, 2010)


Why bioenergy
Why Bioenergy?

  • Similarities to current energy system

  • Near-term

  • Cost effective

  • Scalable

  • Deployable/storable

  • Carbon-negative potential

  • Rural economic development

  • Appropriate technology options for the developing world

  • Synergies with fossil fuels

  • Synergies with other renewables

  • Perhaps better to ask “How?”


Roadmap
Roadmap

  • Air Quality

  • Short-Lived Climate Forcers

  • Land-Use Efficiency


1 air quality

1) Air Quality


Vehicle phase emissions
Vehicle Phase Emissions

  • Ozone increase in LA and northeast offset by decrease in southeast

  • E85 unlikely to improve air quality

  • Emissions outside of vehicle phase neglected

(Jacobson, ES&T, 2007)


Life cycle emissions
Life-Cycle Emissions

  • Human health costs ~ Climate change costs

  • Importance of upstream emissions relative to vehicle emissions

(Hill et al., PNAS, 2007)




Emissions currently underpredicted
Emissions Currently Underpredicted


Relation to next generation biofuels
Relation to Next-Generation Biofuels

  • Create a market for sugarcane trash

  • Emissions from indirect land-use change

(Morton et al., GCB, 2008)


2 short lived climate forcers

2) Short-Lived Climate Forcers


Short live climate forcers slcfs
Short Live Climate Forcers (SLCFs)

  • Aerosols and Ozone

  • Atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks

  • Cooling and warming properties

  • Spatial-explicit climate impacts

  • Black Carbon has 55% of the RF caused by CO2 and a greater forcing than all other SLCFs (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008)



Need for a regional analysis
Need for a Regional Analysis

(Naik et al., GRL, 2007)


3 land use efficiency

3) Land-Use Efficiency


Global land use
Global Land Use

(Campbell et al., ES&T, 2008)


County level abandoned agriculture
County-Level Abandoned Agriculture

(Campbell et al., in prep)


Regional land use
Regional Land Use

(Debolt, Campbell, et al., GCB-Bioenergy, 2010)


Carbonyl sulfide cos ocs cso
Carbonyl Sulfide (COS, OCS, CSO)

  • Source for stratospheric sulfate aerosol.

  • Important role in stratospheric ozone.

  • A novel tracer of terrestrial photosynthesis?


Vertical profiles
Vertical Profiles

(Campbell et al., Science, 2008)



Transportation per cropland area
Transportation per Cropland Area

a) Ethanol

b) Bioelectricity

(Campbell, Lobell, & Field, Science, 2009)


Conversion pathways
Conversion Pathways

  • Advantages to expanding focus to include electricity in addition to liquid fuels

  • Greater emphasis on jet and tanker fuels

  • Lignin rich feedstock


Questions for emerging issues
Questions for Emerging Issues

  • Win-win solutions where environmental mitigation results in more bioenergy supply?

    • E.g. Sugarcane burning vs. second-generation fuels

  • SLCFs incorporated in mandated GHG thresholds?

  • International leakage of air quality impacts?

  • Abandoned lands and other alternative land resources?