Organometallic catalysts
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Organometallic Catalysts. Saber Askari. Presenter :. Dr.Mirzaaghayan. Advisor :. May 2012. Contents :. The basis for catalysis. Catalytic Cycle. History. Mechanistic Concept. Homogeneous Catalysis. Wilkinson’s Catalyst. Asymmetric hydrogenation. Hydroformylation.

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Organometallic catalysts

Organometallic Catalysts

Saber Askari

Presenter :


Advisor :

May 2012

Contents :

  • The basis for catalysis

  • Catalytic Cycle

  • History

  • Mechanistic Concept

  • Homogeneous Catalysis

  • Wilkinson’s Catalyst

  • Asymmetric hydrogenation

  • Hydroformylation

  • Monsanto Acetic acid Process

  • CATIVA Process

  • Wacker Process

  • Heterogeneous Catalysis

  • Ziegler-Natta Catalyst

The basis for catalysis
The basis for catalysis

  • A Catalyst is a substance which speed up the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed.

A catalyst lowers the activation energy for a chemical reaction

The catalyzed reaction goes by a multistep mechanism in which the metal stabilizes intermediates that are stable only when bound to metal .

Importance of catalysis
Importance of catalysis

  • Many major industrial chemicals are prepared with the aid of catalysts

  • Many fine chemicals are also made with the aid of catalysts

– Reduce cost of production

– Lead to better selectivity and less waste

Catalytic cycle
Catalytic Cycle

The catalytically active species must have a vacant coordination site to allow the substrate to coordinate

The establishment of a reaction mechanism is always a difficult task.

It is even harder to definitively establish a catalytic cycle as all the reactions are going on in parallel!

Late transition metals are privileged catalysts (from 16e species easily)

In general , the total electron count alternates between 16 and 18

One of the catalytic steps in the cycle is rate-determining

Homogeneous catalysis
Homogeneous Catalysis

Wilkinson`s Catalyst : Olefin Hydrogenation


Monsanto Acetic acid Process

Wacker Process

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Ziegler-Natta Catalysts

Organometallic catalysts

Homogeneous Catalysis

Homogenous catalysts are used when selectivity is critical and product-catalyst separation problems can be solved.

Organometallic catalysts

  • Advantages :

  • Relatively low reaction temperatures

  • Generally far more selective for a single product

  • far more easily studied from chemical & mechanistic aspects

  • far more active

  • Disadvantages :

  • far more difficult for achieving product/catalyst separations

Organometallic catalysts

  • Catalytic steps in homogeneous reactions

– Association / dissociation of a ligand

» requires labile complexes

– Insertion and elimination reactions

– Nucleophilic attack on a coordinated ligand

– Oxidation and reduction of a metal center

– Oxidative addition / reductive elimination

Wilkinson s catalyst
Wilkinson’s Catalyst: of different types of step

RhCl(PPh3)3 was the first highly active homogeneous hydrogenation catalyst and was discovered by Geoffrey Wilkinson (Nobel prize winner for Ferrocene) in 1964.

Wilkinson’s Catalyst is a Rh(I) complex, Rh(PPh3)3Cl containing three phosphine ligands and one chlorine.

As a result of the olefin insertion (hydrogen migration) we obtain a Rh (III), 16e-, five coordinate species. A solvent occupies the sixth coordination site to take it to a 18e- species.

Reductive elimination occurs to give the hydrogenated product and the catalytically active species.

Organometallic catalysts

Bennett , IC , 1977 , 16 , 665 of different types of step

Olefin hydrogenation using wilkinson s catalyst
Olefin Hydrogenation using Wilkinson’s Catalyst of different types of step

The complex RhCl(PPh3)3 (also known as Wilkinson’s catalyst) became the first highly active homogeneous hydrogenation catalyst that compared in rates with heterogeneous counterparts.

Wilkinson, J. Chem. Soc. (A) 1966, 1711

Organometallic catalysts


(1) H2 addition,

(2) alkene addition,

(3) migratory insertion,

(4) reductive elimination of the alkane, regeneration of the catalyst

Halpern, Chem. Com. 1973, 629; J. Mol. Cat. 1976, 2, 65; Inorg. Chim. Acta. 1981, 50, 11

Organometallic catalysts

The rate of hydrogenation depends on : of different types of step

(a) presence of a functional group in the vicinity of the C=C bond

(b) degree of substitution of the C=C fragment

  • Wilkinson’s catalyst selectivity

Organometallic catalysts

Hydrogenation is stereoselective:

Rh preferentially binds to the least sterically hindered face of the olefin:

Organometallic catalysts

Cis-disubstituted C=C react faster than trans-disubstituted C=C:

Schneider, JOC 1973, 38, 951

Cationic catalysts
Cationic catalysts of different types of step

Cationic catalysts are the most active homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts developed so far:

Organometallic catalysts

  • Steps:

  • alkene addition,

  • (2) H2 addition,

  • (3) migratory insertion,

  • (4) reductive elimination of the alkane, regeneration of the catalyst.

Halpern, Science 1982, 217, 401.

Asymmetric hydrogenation
Asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts with bidentate phosphines

A variety of bidentate chiral diphosphines have been synthesized and used to make amino acids by hydrogenation of enamides:

Burk, Acc. Chem. Res 2000, 33, 363.

Organometallic catalysts

Organometallic catalysts

Catalysts similar to Wilkinson’s but using chiral phosphine ligands have been used for the asymmetric hydrogenation of small molecules .

– Important in the fine chemicals /pharmaceutical industry

Noles and Nyori received the 2001 chemistry Nobel prize for the development of asymmetric hydrogenation catalysis

Organometallic catalysts

Knowles, JACS 1975, 97, 2567.

Organometallic catalysts

Tobin Marks reported the extraordinary activity of (Cp*2LuH)2 for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes. The monometallic complex catalyzes the hydrogenation of 1-hexene with a TOF = 120,000 hr-1 at 1 atm H2, 25ºC!! This is one of the most active hydrogenation catalysts known.

Catalytically active species
Catalytically active species catalysts with bidentate phosphines

With bidentate ligands, olefin coordination can precede oxidative addition of H2 (S = methanol, ethanol, acetone).

Halpern, JACS 1977, 99, 8055

Hydroformylation catalysts with bidentate phosphines

The reaction of an alkene with carbon monoxide and hydrogen, catalyzed by cobalt or rhodium salts to form an aldehyde is called hydroformylation.

Hydroformylation was discovered by Otto Roelen in 1938.

Organometallic catalysts

Heck , JACS, catalysts with bidentate phosphines1961,83,4023

Organometallic catalysts

Organometallic catalysts

Cobalt Phosphine catalyst Mechanism catalysts with bidentate phosphines

Monsanto acetic acid process
Monsanto Acetic acid Process catalysts with bidentate phosphines

1960 basf 1966 monsanto

Cativa process
CATIVA Process catalysts with bidentate phosphines

Cativa process1
CATIVA Process catalysts with bidentate phosphines

Wacker process
Wacker catalysts with bidentate phosphines Process

This is one of the earliest industrial processes developed in Germany for the conversion of ethylene into acetaldehyde.

Wacker process is more complex than the other catalytic processes described above.

Heterogeneous catalysis
Heterogeneous Catalysis catalysts with bidentate phosphines

Heterogeneouscatalysts dominate chemical and petrochemical industry: ~ 95% of all chemical processes use heterogenous catalysts.

Ziegler natta catalysis for the polymerization of olefins
Ziegler-Natta Catalysis for the Polymerization of olefins catalysts with bidentate phosphines

Polymers are large molecules with molecular weights in the range of 104 to 106. These consist of small building units known as monomers

For example polyethylene is made up of ethylene monomers

In all of these cases a single monomer is repeated several times in the polymer chain. The number of repeating units determines the molecular weight of the polymer.

Organometallic catalysts

The German chemist catalysts with bidentate phosphinesKarl Ziegler (1898-1973) discovered in 1953 that when TiCl3(s) and AlEt3 are combined together they produced an extremely active heterogeneous catalyst for the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure.

Giulio Natta (1903-1979), an Italian chemist, extended the method to other olefins like propylene and developed variations of the Ziegler catalyst based on his findings on the mechanism of the polymerization reaction.

The Ziegler-Natta catalyst family includes halides of titanium, chromium, vanadium, and zirconium, typically activated by alkyl aluminum compounds

Ziegler and Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work in 1963.

Organometallic catalysts

Thanks for your attention catalysts with bidentate phosphines