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Founders Review. According to Freud, what is the third psychosexual stage (age 3-6)? How is it resolved? Answer: Phallic, identification with same sex parent Name that defense mechanism: The defense mechanism that underlies all the rest. repression Acting the opposite of how you feel

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founders review

Founders Review

According to Freud, what is the third psychosexual stage (age 3-6)? How is it resolved?

Answer: Phallic, identification with same sex parent

Name that defense mechanism:

The defense mechanism that underlies all the rest.


Acting the opposite of how you feel

Reaction formation

Addressing problem from an emotionless perspective


Redirecting feelings to a less-threatening object


Accusing others of unacceptable desire you are having.


3. Name that person:

- Neo-Freudian that created birth order theories and focused on feelings of inferiority


- founder of trait theory


- father of psychoanalysis.


- first to suggest introversion and extraversion as underlying personality traits


- proposed theories of basic anxiety and womb envy as determinants of personality


- proposed theory of collective unconscious


assessing personality review
Assessing Personality Review

4. Rorschach, TAT, Draw-a-person are all examples of this type of test.

- Projective tests

5. Name 3 personality inventories that align with the trait perspective.

- MMPI, Myers-Briggs, NEO-FFI, 16PF, BFI

6. Which is the most commonly used, empirically-derived personality inventory?


7. According to the trait perspective, what determines our personality?

- Genes, biology

8. According to psychoanalysis, what determines our personality?

- The unconscious; how we mediate unconscious desires and societal expectations; how we coped with unconscious sexual desires as a child (with the help of our primary caregiver)

humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology
  • Late 1950s-early 1960’s
    • “make love, not war” era beginning.
    • Doesn’t jive with:
      • Psychoanalysis: too pessimistic
      • Behavioralism: too deterministic
      • Trait: too objective
  • Along came psychologists wanted to focus on “healthy” people and how to help them strive to “be all that they can be”.
abraham maslow

Studied healthy, creative people (not mentally ill)

Found in them a desire to self-actualize (fulfill their potential).

Self-actualizing people are: self aware, caring, open, spontaneous, loving, secure, problem-centered, have a few deep relationships, moved by peak experiences

Peak experience= sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, and possibly the awareness of "ultimate truth" and the unity of all things.

Abraham Maslow

abraham maslow s hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Being need (self-actualization): a need that is always salient.

Deficiency needs (bottom four levels): Needs that are salient only when deficient.

According to Maslow, only 2-3% of people are truly self-actualizing.


If you have significant difficulty fulfilling a need at some point in your life you may “fixate” at that level and develop neuroses.

Meredith Gray was abandoned by her father and raised by an emotionally cold mother, causing her to fixate at the belongingness stage. Now, she has difficulty accepting love from others.

carl rogers s person centered perspective
Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Perspective
  • People are basically GOOD.
  • We are like acorns; we need a nurturing environment to grow.

Acorns need water, sun, and air to grow.

We need genuineness, acceptance and empathy to grow.

  • Being open with your own feelings.
  • Dropping your facade.
  • Being transparent and self-disclosing.
  • Unconditional Positive Regard:

An attitude of acceptance regardless of circumstances.

Accepting yourself or others completely.

  • Listening, sharing, understanding and mirroring feelings and reflecting their meanings.
self concept
  • Both Rogers and Maslow believed that your self-concept is at the center of your personality.
  • If our self concept is positive….

We tend to act and perceive the world positively.

  • If our self-concept is negative….

We fall short of our “ideal self” and feel dissatisfied and unhappy

conditioned positive regard cpr
Conditioned Positive Regard (CPR)
  • “I like you if….”
  • Causes us to focus on what others think we should be  “ideal self”
the discrepancy causes
The discrepancy causes…
  • Neurosis
    • “I’m not good enough”
    • “No one likes me for who I am”
    • “I have to pretend to be someone else”

The way to cure neurosis is…

assessing the personality
Assessing the Personality
  • Questionnaire to describe who you are and who you want to be.
  • Goal of therapy is to bring the two together.
  • How????

Real self

Ideal self

client centered therapy
Client-centered therapy
  • Developed by Carl Rogers
  • Therapist offers UPR (genuineness, acceptance, and empathy).
  • Active listening
  • Non-directive
  • Patient gets in touch with “real self” and is happy.
is there evidence for humanism
Is there evidence for humanism?

Some. Self-knowledge helps: Research shows that we perform better if we take time to set clear goals for ourselves.

Correlational studies show that people who feel good about themselves have fewer sleepless nights, resist pressure to conform, are less likely to use drugs, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are less shy and lonely, and are happier.(does high self-esteem causes these or is it the other way around?)

Experimental research has shown that low-self esteem can CAUSE people to act thin-skinned, judgmental, more prejudiced, and excessively critical.

do minorities have lower self esteem
Do minorities have lower self-esteem?


They value the areas in which they excel.

They attribute problems to prejudice.

They compare themselves to their own group.

self serving bias
Self-Serving Bias
  • A readiness to perceive oneself favorable.
  • People accept more responsibility for successes than failures.
  • Appears to be adaptive as it wards off extreme depression.
does culture play a part in our personality according to humanistic psychologists
Does culture play a part in our personality (according to humanistic psychologists)?
  • Individualism: giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals. Defining your identity in terms of yourself.
    • More privacy, more accepting of different lifestyles, people feel free to switch jobs, churches, and homes.
  • Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of a group and defining your identity as part of that group.
    • Less divorce, homicide, stress-related disease, and loneliness
criticisms of humanism
Criticisms of Humanism
  • Concepts are vague and subjective
  • Can lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and erosion of morals
  • Fails to appreciate the human capacity for evil.