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Chapter 11 Problem Solving
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Chapter 11 Problem Solving

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  1. Chapter 11 Problem Solving

  2. Objectives • Explain the four stages of problem solving • Describe the red / green modes of problem solving • Identify the different roles a facilitator or manager plays during the problem-solving process 11 -1 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  3. …Objectives • Learn how to facilitate a problem-solving meeting • Explain Six Sigma and Appreciative Inquiry 11 -2 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  4. Historical Shift From solely managerial problem solving Managerial and team problem solving to 11 -3 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  5. Convergence “Doubting” Contraction Divergence “Believing” Expansion Problem-Solving DialecticsGreen/Red Modes 11 -4 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  6. Stages in Kolb’s Problem-Solving Model SituationAnalysis Problem Analysis Solution Analysis Implementation Analysis 11 -5 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  7. Characteristics of Problem Solving • Not a logical, linear process • Alternating wavelike expansions and contractions • Outward movement => gather and consider alternatives, information, and ideas • Inward movement => focus, evaluate and decide 11 -6 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  8. Kolb’s Problem-Solving Model Situation Analysis Problem Analysis Solution Analysis Implementation Analysis Expansion Green Mode Mind-set Valuing Information Gathering Idea Getting Participation Problem as Given Problem Chosen Problem Defined Solution Chosen Solution Implemented Contraction Red Mode Mind-set Priority Setting Problem Definition Decision Making Planning Leader Detective Inventor Coordinator Manager 11 -7 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  9. Effective Problem Solving Requires balanced attention to each of the four stages and equal emphasis on and mind-sets 11 -8 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  10. Structured Vs. Unstructured Problems • Structured problems are repetitive and routine, and definite procedures are developed for dealing with them • Unstructured problems are novel and not covered by ready-made procedures because they occur infrequently Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner 11 -9

  11. Brainstorming - Defined Brainstorming is the generation of as wide a range of potential solutions as possible Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner 11 -10

  12. Six Sigma - Defined Six Sigma is a problem-solving approach that utilizes statistical methods to remove obstacles and create processes that lead to high-quality products and processes 11 -11 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  13. DMAIC – Basic Six Sigma Formula Define Measure Analyze Improve Control 11 -12 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  14. Appreciative Inquiry - Defined Appreciative inquiry is the study and exploration of what gives life to human systems when they function at their best Rather than seeking to fix problem deficits, AI focuses on what’s already positive and strengthens it 11 -13 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  15. Appreciative Inquiry 4D Cycle Dream Discover Design Destiny 11 -14 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

  16. Cultural Differences and Problem Solving • Cultures vary in the way they define problems, gather information, and solve problems • These dimensions impact problem solving: • Locus of control • Individualism vs. Collectivism • High vs. Low Context • Orientation towards time 11 -15 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner