BACC COSC6212. Learning Unit 2 The theoretical foundation and principles of internal persuasion. The link between persuasion and motivation (De Wet 2913:40).
Learning Unit 2
The theoretical foundation and principles of internal persuasion
People are influenced by different things and a persuader needs to find out why and when you need to persuade. Motivation is the reason for action.
The THREE (3) PROCESS PREMISES are:
Needs (that which has to be satisfied from time to time) make people susceptible to persuasion.
Affirmation of value
Sense of power
Need of roots
Basic (or physiological) needs are at the bottom, because these are people’s most powerful needs and only when these bread-and-butter needs are satisfied can people attend to other, higher needs.
E.g. I have a negative attitude towards mathematics, thus, if someone ask me to calculate something, my opinion will be that mathematics is stupid.
Persuasive arguments show evidence that can connect through reasoning to lead an audience to change their minds.
Sign of proof.
TYPES OF REASONING:
Criteria-to-application reasoning – Researching the criteria that would make a ‘product’ the best choice and then applying their support to that ‘product’, e.g. Omo has been found to be the best for your whites, thus the researcher supports using Omo
Deductive reasoning: from general to specific
Inductive reasoning: from specific to general
What is credibility?
“The quality of being believable or worthy of trust…” (www.freedictionary.com)
Credibility revolves around a communicator’s seeming expertness (1) (intelligence (1) and knowledge of the subject (1)), trustworthiness (1) (a reputation of being honest (1)) and goodwill (1) (i.e. having the recipient’s best interests at heart (1)) towards a recipient. Also, language (1), message development (1), common sense (1) and sincerity (1) contribute to the source’s credibility.
Angelina Jolie Desmond Tutu Jacob Zuma Oprah Winfrey
Verbal communication concerns the words used in persuasive messages; non-verbal messages (no words used, including kinesics, haptics, proxemics, etc.) can contradict, repeat, regulate, substitute, accentuate or compliment verbal messages – thus, non-verbal communication can affect persuasive outcomes.
Definition: Paralanguage is language (non-verbal) over-and-above language (words used). E.g. the pitch, volume, pace, etc., which contextualise a message.
An example of how paralanguage can be used to persuade an audience is when a speaker shouts information at their audience, the audience will be less inclined to accept the message (as shouting is contextualised as being rude)
Refer to McGuire’s Inoculation Theory covered in LU1 (#22; De Wet 2013:22).
Inoculation, here, means to expose people to arguments against their beliefs and attitudes and then refuting those arguments.
E.g. Mr. Marchant will highlight the benefits of effective communication in an organisation (i.e. strengthening your attitudes and beliefs); he then list the reasons why ‘separate but equal’ is a bad idea (an argument against your beliefs being refuted).
People change because of their interaction with one another. E.g. We learn how to behave in class, because we look at how people in our social group behaves in a class.
A moral dilemma – it refers to the feeling of discomfort caused by conflicts or inconsistencies between a person’s attitudes and/ or behaviour.
E.g. If I steal something, it will be behaviour that would contradict my belief (that stealing is wrong). I will be easily persuaded by my friend to do the right thing and hand myself over to the police.
This theory describes two (2) components:
(i) anchor points (i.e. making judgements based on internal anchors, e.g. trust) and
(ii) ego involvement (i.e. making decisions based on whether something applies to you and how strongly you feel about it – e.g. women might be more vocal about equal rights policies)
This theory describes how people are persuaded by messages they think about (thus, elaborate on) – i.e. people are motivated to hold correct attitudes, which they contextualise (whether it is relevant to them or not).
In ELT, the two (2) routes to persuasion are: i) central (the person considers the argument carefully and critically); andii) peripheral (the person does not critically or carefully consider the argument, but agree/ disagree with it based on whether it is pretty or some other superficial elements)