A brief look at forms, functions and purposes of government. introduction to Government. Mr. Rhodes. “But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” James Madison. Nation and State.
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introduction to Government
“But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.”
Government is a contract between the ruler and the ruled with certain obligations for both parties.
The philosophy that government does not have absolute authority.
Limitations are placed on the government by some outside force; usually the people and/or the law.
Born in London in 1588
Educated at Oxford in the classics
Travelled abroad to study science and forms of government
In 1651, wrote “Leviathan”
Wrote at the end of the English Civil War
Strong support of absolutism and monarchy
People are naturally wicked, selfish creatures
Left alone, chaos will reign and life will be nasty, short and brutish
Governments are created to protect people from their natural state of evil
Countries need authority figures to provide leadership and direction
Idea stems fromHobbes’ belief that in the state of nature, people were always at war with one another, a war of all against all. Each individual was endowed with the right to do anything they pleased and people were in constant fear for their lives.
Rights that cannot be taken away from anyone, for example freedom of speech.
The belief that all persons, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, age, etc., have the same rights as everyone else.
What is happening in this painting?
Which principles of democracy are illustrated by this painting?
What is happening in this painting?
How does this painting relate to the concept of unalienable rights?
The political theory that governments gain their authority from their people.
A government is not legitimate if the people do not give their consent.
What is happening in the picture?
How does it relate to the topic of limited government?
To Consent of the Governed?
Born in Bristol, England in 1632
Of the “gentry” class; father was an attorney and wanted him to become a minister
He wanted to study medicine and went to Oxford College
Heavily influenced by John Owen, the Dean of Christ College at Oxford
Owen believed in freedom from persecution for religious beliefs and moderation/compromise
In 1690, Locke wrote “Two Treatises of Government” on government, but he did not think that a sovereign could/should do anything that would injure his or her subjects
Said that government should be like a contract between the ruler and the people
Sovereignty resides with the people, not the ruler
People have natural rights of life, liberty and property
The role of government is to protect man’s natural rights on government, but he did not think that a sovereign could/should do anything that would injure his or her subjects
If the ruler doesn’t abide by the agreement, the people should overthrow him
In 1682, his ideas were seen as a challenge to the power of the monarchy and he fled to Holland for sanctuary
He will return after the Glorious Revolution and the restoration of the throne under William of Orange and his wife, Mary
Locke rejected Divine Right of Kings
The idea that people join groups, and these groups make a presence known as a society.
A social contract is the compact that the people agree form the rules and conditions for membership in their society.
The belief that all persons are entitled to equal rights and treatment before the law.
Civilization is a Method of Living, An Attitude of Equal Respect for All Men
- Jane Addams, 1933
How does this picture represent a social contract?
In what ways do people form social contracts today?
Do you believe that people receive equal treatment before the law? Why or why not?
Occurs after people leave the state of nature. Signs of this transfer are: people act on rules of justice rather than on instinct, physical impulse is replaced by the voice of duty, and people consult reason rather than inclinations.
By entering civil society people gain civil liberty and the legal right of property in what they possess. They also gain moral freedom, making people masters of themselves.
Apollo 11 astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin stands facing the U.S. flag on the Moon. The rod to hold the flag out horizontally would not extend fully, so the flag ended up with a slight waviness, giving the appearance of being windblown. The flag itself was difficult to erect, it was very hard to penetrate beyond about 6 to 8 inches into the lunar soil with the flagstaff.
What does the placement of the American flag indicate?
Who has a right to claim the moon?
What is the relationship between Rousseau’s thoughts on civil society and this image?
Born in Geneva, Switzerland on government, but he did not think that a sovereign could/should do anything that would injure his or her subjects
His mother died shortly after he was born
Apprenticed as an engraver, but ran away to Paris at age 15 where he became a music teacher
Known as one of the Philosophes of French society (Enlightenment period)
In 1762 Rousseau published The Social Contract, a masterwork of political science that describes a just society in which liberty and legality are drawn from what he terms the general will.