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Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps. Prepared by Shirley Hune, Ph.D. David T. Takeuchi, Ph.D. University of Washington Seattle. F ramework and Process.

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asian americans in washington state closing their hidden achievement gaps

Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps

Prepared by

Shirley Hune, Ph.D.

David T. Takeuchi, Ph.D.

University of Washington Seattle

Presented to WA State Board of Education January 15, 2009

f ramework and process
Framework and Process
  • Why are Asian American achievement gapshidden? a) model minority stereotype;b) lumping together all As Am ethnic groups; c) reliance on mainstream studies.
  • Uncover gaps bya) use of disaggregated data; b) incorporate community-based research; c) consult with community groups, e.g. CBOs.
demographics who are asian americans
Demographics: Who are Asian Americans?
  • Diverse:24ethnic groups in U.S. Census.
  • 4.4% of U.S. and 6.6%(Asian alone) and 8% (Asian alone and in combination - mixed race) in WA (2007).
  • Among states, Washington is the 5th largest in percentage and 7th largest in number of Asian Americans (429,406 in 2007).
  • Largely foreign-born: 69% U. S.; 67% WA.
washington s asian americans economic and linguistic challenges and disparities
Washington’s Asian Americans: Economic and Linguistic Challenges and Disparities
  • Poverty
    • All Asian13%, State average 11%
      • Hmong46%, Indonesians 26%, Cambodians 25%
  • Limited English Language Proficiency
    • All Asian 40%,Latinos37%
      • Vietnamese66%, Hmong 62%
  • Educational Attainment (Bachelor's Degree or Higher) Disparities
    • All Asian 36.8%, State average 27.7%
      • Laotians 5.0%, Cambodians 6.6%, Hmong 10.7%

Source: U.S. Census, 2000

asian americans students in wa public schools
Asian Americans Students in WA Public Schools
  • K-12 enrollment: 8% of State’s student population (80,000+).
  • 20 school districts around Seattle Puget Sound and Clark county;Seattle School District, the largest 12%.
  • Speak more than 100languages and dialects; Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese-Cantonese, Tagalog, Khmer (Cambodian), etc.
  • 40% of As Am students speak a language other than English.
  • 31% of them receive a FRPL.
asian american students in seattle schools
Asian American Students in Seattle Schools
  • Not living with both parents
    • All Asian - 28%
      • SE Asians 46%, Vietnamese 35%, Filipino 31%
  • High school dropout rate
    • All Asian - 8%
      • Southeast and Other Asian students 14%
  • Free/Reduced Lunch Program
    • All Asian - 47%
      • Vietnamese68%, Other Southeast Asians 60%
research findings on asian american students hidden achievement gaps
Research Findings on Asian American Students:Hidden Achievement Gaps
  • English Language Learning (ELL) Students
  • Filipino and Southeast Asian Americans
  • Math and Science
  • College Access and Enrollment
asian american students by ell frpl gender 10 th grade wasl performance

10th Grade All Asian

ELL

Free/Reduced

Female

Male

100%

80%

60%

Percent Met Standard

40%

20%

0%

Reading

Writing

Math

Science

Source: 2007/08 OSPI WASL Data

Asian American Students by ELL, FRPL, Gender: 10th Grade WASL Performance
a sian a merican ell students at risk
Asian American ELL Students At Risk
  • Underserved and Under-supported
    • 40% of all AA students in WA are Non Native English Speakers (33,022).
    • But only 35% of them are in TBIP (11,676).
  • Academic Challenges
    • ELL Classes – Lower than Mainstream Grade Level
    • Math and Science – Double burden (language + content)
    • Less prepared for WASL – Mainstream Standards
  • ELL Stigma
    • “Dummies” ;“Treat me like a child”; “Speak with accent”
filipino and se asian american students at risk

Source: 2007 District Report, Seattle Public Schools

READING

MATH

SCIENCE

84.4%

70.1%

44.7%

Chinese

84.2%

41.2%

41.2%

East Indian

77.2%

38.2%

22.1%

Filipino

89.8%

78.7%

66.7%

Japanese

75.0%

75.0%

56.3%

Korean

83.0%

56.1%

31.1%

Vietnamese

78.1%

33.3%

10.5%

Southeast

Filipino and SE Asian American Students At Risk

10th Grade WASL Performance Seattle Public Schools, 2007–2008

filipino and southeast as am students at risk feeling like no on e cares
Filipino and Southeast As AmStudents at Risk: “Feeling Like No One Cares”
  • Unsupportive School Climate:

a) Model Minority Stereotyping

b) Pedagogy and Curriculum Issues – “being left out”

c) Peer Group Antagonism -bullying and racial violence

d) Mental Health Issues – depression, suicide

e) Dropout/Push out/Kick outs – Gang involvement

  • Family Issues:

a) Pressure on youth to succeed

b) Unavailable; Unable to advise/support

c) Lack of information about U.S. schools/culture

voices of filipino and southeast as am student s
I dropped out because:[the teachers] pretended I wasn’t there.They treated me like a little kid [he wanted to learn and be challenged] (Vietnamese)

“We [students] began to question facts in textbooks. . as demonstration of resistance to stereotypes we internalize (lazy, troublemaker, under achiever). This was seen by educators as “acting out.” [can result in suspension] (Filipino)

Voices of Filipino and Southeast As Am Students

I joined a gang because:

Teachers didn’t really know how to listen to me…didn’t want to teach me [school wasn’t safe] kids were always getting into arguments and fights. (Cambodian)

beyond high school more achievement gap

2 Yr College %

4 Yr College %

48

40

Vietnamese (N=279)

24

60

Korean (N=407)

27

57

Chinese (N=93)

24

50

Japanese (157)

36

37

Filipino (N=311)

43

29

Laotian (N=28)

27

42

Asian Indian (N=52)

40

23

Cambodian (N=243)

34

43

All Asian (N=1646)

Beyond High School: More Achievement Gap

College Attendance among Asian American Students, Classes of 2000, 2002, and 2003

Source: UW Beyond High School Project, 2008

recommendations best practices supporting as am students at risk
RECOMMENDATIONS - Best Practices: Supporting As Am Students at Risk
  • Adopt a Data Collection, Research, and Evaluation Plan.
  • Create a Seamless Pipeline Pre-K Through Higher Education.
  • Broaden and Enhance School Measurements and Accountability.
  • Foster Culturally Responsive Approaches and Practices.
  • Address Teacher Quality and Effectiveness.
  • Engage Asian American Families in Schools.
  • Strengthen School-Community Partnerships.