Spotlight of Diversity onAsian-Americans Presented by: Jennifer Christensen Liz Garvison Tim Moon Elia Surbert With special guest Maryanne Avecilla
They include : Chinese Japanese Filipino Indochinese Also include people from: India Pakistan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Kashmir Nepal Bhutan Burma Who Are Asian Americans?
There is an unfortunate tendency to make the following misperceptions about Asian Americans • Because they look alike, they are similar. • They have an intimate connection to their ancestral homeland. • They tend to isolate and concentrate in their own communities
1835U.S. and China sign first treaty. 1848Gold discovered in California. Chinese begin to arrive 1854People v. Hall rules that Chinese can’t give testimony in court. U.S. and Japan sign first treaty. 1858California passes a law to bar entry of Chinese and "Mongolians." History
Railroad • Men of SteelIn 1963, construction began on the transcontinental railroad—1,776 miles of tracks that would form a link between America's West and East coasts. • 1865Central Pacific Railroad Co. recruits Chinese workers for the transcontinental railroad. • 1867Two thousand Chinese railroad workers strike for a week.
1872California's Civil Procedure Code drops law barring Chinese court testimony 1880U.S. and China sign treaty giving the U.S. the right to limit but "not absolutely prohibit" Chinese immigration. Section 69 of California's Civil Code prohibits issuing of licenses for marriages between whites and "Mongolians, Negroes, mulattoes and persons of mixed blood." 1888Scott Act renders 20,000 Chinese reentry certificates null and void. 1898Wong Kim Ark v. U.S. decides that Chinese born in the U.S. can't be stripped of their citizenship 1903Filipino students (pensionados) arrive in the U.S. for higher education 1905Section 60 of California's Civil Code amended to forbid marriage between whites and "Mongolians.“ History Continued
Continued • 1917Arizona passes an Alien Land Law. 1917 Immigration Law defines a geographic "barred zone" (including India) from which no immigrants can come • 1922Takao Ozawa v. U.S. declares Japanese not eligible for naturalized citizenship • 1923U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind declares Asian Indians not eligible for naturalized citizenship.
More History • 1941 December 7th Japanese Attack pearl Harbor. • 110,000 Japanese people in concentration camps run by the U.S. during WWII. • 19495000 highly educated Chinese in the U.S. granted refugee status after China institutes a Communist government http://www.densho.org/assets/sharedpages/primarysource/primarysource.asp?id=117&display_format=4§ion=causes
More • 1946Wing F. Ong becomes first Asian American to be elected to state office in the Arizona House of Representatives. • 1964Patsy Takemoto Mink becomes first Asian American woman to serve in Congress as representative from Hawaii. • 1976President Gerald Ford rescinds Executive Order 9066. • 1987The U.S. House of Representatives votes 243 to 141 to make an official apology to Japanese Americans • 1988The U.S. Senate votes 69% to 27 to support redress for Japanese Americans. American Homecoming Act allows children in Vietnam born of American fathers to emigrate to the U.S.
Clark County • More than 100 Chinese were hired in 1893 to dig the Eureka Ditch, which would drain a swampy agricultural area in east Clark County. It later became known as "China Ditch" and ran alongside what is now 172nd Avenue.
The first national Asian American political leaders came from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s. The first mainland Asian American to become a member of the U.S. House of Representatives was Dalip Singh Saund Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta Former U.S. Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Bill Lann Lee Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawai'I Governor of the state of Washington Gary Locke, the first Asian American governor outside of Hawai'i
Discrimination in the 1800’s • Foreign Miner’s Tax (1850)
Discrimination in the 1800’s Police Tax (1862)
Discrimination in the 1800’s Burlingame Treaty (1868) Protection from discrimination, exploitation, and violence. Recognize the right of people to free migration & emigration.
Forbidden Love in the 1800’s Section 69: California Civil Code Amended (1880)
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT Decade long ban on Chinese immigration. (1882) The Brady’s defend themselves against "a howling mob of Chinks," in San Francisco's Chinatown. The stereotypical Chinese villains in these stories run opium dens and take great delight in abducting white women who they attempt to hook on the drug.
Chinese Exclusion Act Sign in lower right corner says “No more dumping allowed.” Poster from 1883
Unequal Impact (1886) • Yick Wo v. Hopkins – Successful court case brought forth by Chinese laundrymen. Court declares a law with “unequal impact” on different groups is discriminatory.
Discrimination in the 1800’s The Scott Act (1888)
Plague Scares 1896 & 1900 Bubonic plague scare in Honolulu in 1896 Bubonic plague scare in San Francisco in 1900 Honolulu’s Chinatown burned! San Francisco Chinatown cordoned off and quarantined.
Alien Land Laws • California (1913) • Arizona (1917) New Mexico (1922) Idaho, Montana, & Oregon (1923)
Cable Act (1922) Any American female (citizen) who married an “alien ineligible to receive citizenship” would lose her citizenship. Amended in 1931 to allow the American women to renaturalization rights at a later date (upon divorce).
Immigration Act of 1924 Denies entry of nearly all Asians. Immigration Act of 1965 – abolishes “national origins” as basis for allocating quotas. Homeland Security now handles most INS functions.
Executive Order 9066 Established “relocation camps” for Japanese-Americans & Japanese Immigrants.
E.O. 9066 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in 1942. President Gerald Ford in 1976 rescinds E.O. 9066. Referred to as a “grave injustice” by the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians committee in 1981.
Reparations Fight for reparations began to gain momentum in 1987.
Reparations Finalized Passed 243-141 in US House of Representatives. Each surviving internee granted $20,000. Passes US Senate in 1988, 69-27. President George H.W. Bush signs it into law in 1989.
Covered In Psych 309 • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Equal Employment Act of 1972 • Executive Order 11246 in 1965 • Civil Rights Act of 1991
Recent Legislation • H.R. 302 – Filipino Veteran Equity Act • H.R. 1492 – Preservation of Historic Sites of Japanese Detention • H.R. 893 – Restitution for individuals of Japanese ancestry forced to the U.S. during WWII
The first Asian immigrants…the Chinese American Family • Cantonese- or Toisanese speaking Chinese • Mandarin-speaking Chinese
Confucianism Confucian morality held sacred a system of hierarchies based on: generation, age and gender
Values of Chinese Americans Education is highly valued. A strong sense of responsibility towards relatives exists. A failure to live up to elders’ expectations results in self-blame. Respect for elders is equated with respect for authority.
Life-Cycle transitions A stigma was attached to divorce- some desperate Chinese American women even took their own lives seeing it as the only way out. In 1990, the divorce rate was 2.3%-3.3% compared to white men and women (7.5% and 9.4%) and slightly lower than those of other Asian American groups. 87.6% of Chinese American children live in a two parent household.
3 central strengths found in Chinese American family Cultural continuity, despite early immigrant adversities. The absorption of extended family members. The financial contribution of women.
Religions • Confucianism and feudalism • Buddhism • Shinto • A survey conducted in 1995 reveled that Japanese cultural values of loyalty and harmony are strongly embedded in Confucianism and feudalism, yet the Japanese lives are not strongly influenced by religion.
The hierarchical Japanese family system, or ie Inheritance in direct succession from generation to generation. Leadership role is inherited by the oldest son who also inherits the family estate. The ie system gives absolute authority over individual family members to the father or family council which included making all of the important decisions: occupational choices and marriage partners.
Key force that shaped the lives of Japanese Americans…WWII Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941 more than 40,000 Japanese living on the Pacific Coast and their 70,000 American-born children who were US citizens were removed from their homes and incarcerated in “relocation camps”.
Since the revised 1965 Immigration Act which abolished the national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.
Values The Japanese American family are more likely to be nuclear- but also tend to live closer to family and all age groups participate in family activities. Deference to and respect for elders- a strong commitment to family and caring for the elderly parents. Male head of household but an encouragement for children to assimilate into the mainstream culture. Educational achievement was seen as a success of acculturation.
Life-cycle transitions Japanese Americans tend to marry later in life than other Asian American groups. 50-60% of Japanese marriages are cross-cultural. Japanese Americans have one of the lowest rates of divorce of any group in the United States. The proportion of Japanese American female heads of household without husbands is around 11.9%.
3 strengths of the Japanese American Family Strong family solidarity, despite adverse historical experiences. Strong feelings of obligation and commitment towards parents. Tolerance toward family diversity.
Asian Indians Diversity within India- 83% are Hindus 11% are Muslims 3% are Christians 2% are Sikhs India is divided into many castes, tribes, languages and subcultures which results in a variety of traditional practices.
Presence in the United States Before 1965 quota restricted 100 Indians to immigrate annually. Between 1965- 1970 over 26,000 During the 1980’s approx. 20,000 entered each year. Among Asian populations, Asian Indians are one of the fastest growing groups in the United States. 1990 US Census-approx. 815,447 2001 US Census- approx. 1,678,765
“Model Minority” Seen as a model minority due to their high level of education and privileged socioeconomic status which enables them to find employment and maintain income levels. They are exposed to Western values and beliefs. There educational system is distinctly Western European and as a result most are fluent in English.
Family system • Three or more generations may live together forming a joint family system. • Interdependence, group solidarity, and conformity are highly valued. • Behavior roles are governed by age, gender and generational status. • Social roles are rigid and formal and are enforced by using shame and guilt as a means of control.