Spotlight of Diversity on Asian-Americans. Presented by: Jennifer Christensen Liz Garvison Tim Moon Elia Surbert With special guest Maryanne Avecilla. They include : Chinese Japanese Filipino Indochinese. Also include people from: India Pakistan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Kashmir
With special guest
1880U.S. and China sign treaty giving the U.S. the right to limit but "not absolutely prohibit" Chinese immigration. Section 69 of California's Civil Code prohibits issuing of licenses for marriages between whites and "Mongolians, Negroes, mulattoes and persons of mixed blood."
1888Scott Act renders 20,000 Chinese reentry certificates null and void.
1898Wong Kim Ark v. U.S. decides that Chinese born in the U.S. can't be stripped of their citizenship
1903Filipino students (pensionados) arrive in the U.S. for higher education
1905Section 60 of California's Civil Code amended to forbid marriage between whites and "Mongolians.“History Continued
December 7th Japanese Attack pearl Harbor.
The first mainland Asian American to become a member of the U.S. House of Representatives was Dalip Singh Saund
Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao
Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta
Former U.S. Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Bill Lann Lee
Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawai'I
Governor of the state of Washington Gary Locke, the first Asian American governor outside of Hawai'i
Police Tax (1862)
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
Protection from discrimination, exploitation, and violence.
Recognize the right of people to free migration & emigration.
Section 69: California Civil Code Amended (1880)
Decade long ban on Chinese immigration. (1882)
The Brady’s defend themselves against "a howling mob of Chinks," in San Francisco's Chinatown. The stereotypical Chinese villains in these stories run opium dens and take great delight in abducting white women who they attempt to hook on the drug.
Sign in lower right corner says “No more dumping allowed.”
Poster from 1883
The Scott Act (1888)
Bubonic plague scare in Honolulu in 1896
Bubonic plague scare in San Francisco in 1900
Honolulu’s Chinatown burned! San Francisco Chinatown cordoned off and quarantined.
New Mexico (1922)
Idaho, Montana, & Oregon (1923)
Any American female (citizen) who married an “alien ineligible to receive citizenship” would lose her citizenship.
Amended in 1931 to allow the American women to renaturalization rights at a later date (upon divorce).
Denies entry of nearly all Asians.
Immigration Act of 1965 – abolishes “national origins” as basis for allocating quotas.
Homeland Security now handles most INS functions.
Established “relocation camps” for Japanese-Americans & Japanese Immigrants.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in 1942.
President Gerald Ford in 1976 rescinds E.O. 9066.
Referred to as a “grave injustice” by the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians committee in 1981.
Fight for reparations began to gain momentum in 1987.
Passed 243-141 in US House of Representatives.
Each surviving internee granted $20,000.
Passes US Senate in 1988, 69-27.
President George H.W. Bush signs it into law in 1989.
Confucian morality held sacred a system of hierarchies based on:
Education is highly valued.
A strong sense of responsibility towards relatives exists.
A failure to live up to elders’ expectations results in self-blame.
Respect for elders is equated with respect for authority.
A stigma was attached to divorce- some desperate Chinese American women even took their own lives seeing it as the only way out.
In 1990, the divorce rate was 2.3%-3.3% compared to white men and women (7.5% and 9.4%) and slightly lower than those of other Asian American groups.
87.6% of Chinese American children live in a two parent household.
Cultural continuity, despite early immigrant adversities.
The absorption of extended family members.
The financial contribution of women.
Inheritance in direct succession from generation to generation.
Leadership role is inherited by the oldest son who also inherits the family estate.
The ie system gives absolute authority over individual family members to the father or family council which included making all of the important decisions: occupational choices and marriage partners.
Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941 more than 40,000 Japanese living on the Pacific Coast and their 70,000 American-born children who were US citizens were removed from their homes and incarcerated in “relocation camps”.
Since the revised 1965 Immigration Act which abolished the national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.
The Japanese American family are more likely to be nuclear- but also tend to live closer to family and all age groups participate in family activities.
Deference to and respect for elders- a strong commitment to family and caring for the elderly parents.
Male head of household but an encouragement for children to assimilate into the mainstream culture.
Educational achievement was seen as a success of acculturation.
Japanese Americans tend to marry later in life than other Asian American groups.
50-60% of Japanese marriages are cross-cultural.
Japanese Americans have one of the lowest rates of divorce of any group in the United States.
The proportion of Japanese American female heads of household without husbands is around 11.9%.
Strong family solidarity, despite adverse historical experiences.
Strong feelings of obligation and commitment towards parents.
Tolerance toward family diversity.
Diversity within India-
83% are Hindus
11% are Muslims
3% are Christians
2% are Sikhs
India is divided into many castes, tribes, languages and subcultures which results in a variety of traditional practices.
Before 1965 quota restricted 100 Indians to immigrate annually.
Between 1965- 1970 over 26,000
During the 1980’s approx. 20,000 entered each year.
Among Asian populations, Asian Indians are one of the fastest growing groups in the United States.
1990 US Census-approx. 815,447
2001 US Census- approx. 1,678,765
Seen as a model minority due to their high level of education and privileged socioeconomic status which enables them to find employment and maintain income levels.
They are exposed to Western values and beliefs.
There educational system is distinctly Western European and as a result most are fluent in English.
Asian Indian children are often docile and reserve and obedient to American teachers.
Great deal of pressure is placed on children’s scholastic success.
Communication between parents and children tend to be hierarchical and one-sided.
Religious observance does not decline for the Asian Indian immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.
Families regularly visit temples and have statues of divinities. Some families have regular offerings and prayers.
Despite economic and occupational success, Asian Indians tend not to integrate socially.
A high value is placed on marriage and family but love and passions are not necessary components.
The pattern of male-dominated marriages continue to be the norm.
Divorce is rare and there is a strong taboo against parenthood without marriage.
Respect for elderly and their wisdom
Supporting parents when they become unable to do so.
Family plays important role
Strong sense of everyone’s well-being
They are urban and are partially Westernized which enables the process of assimilation.
Glass ceiling – Yes
Further advancement with the company requires a bachelor’s degree
Asian Americans experience racial discrimination at lower levels than Blacks or Hispanics.
Diversity training onsite to bridge the gap
Mediator for conflict resolution
3.6 million Asians enter America
Frederick T.L. Leong