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Research Techniques of Neuroscience. Lecture 5. Studying the Brain & Behavior. Anatomy & behavior Damage  behavior changes Structural differences  behavior Activity & behavior Behavior  record activity Change activity  behavior? Correlation vs experimentation causality ~.

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studying the brain behavior
Studying the Brain & Behavior
  • Anatomy & behavior
    • Damage  behavior changes
    • Structural differences  behavior
  • Activity & behavior
    • Behavior  record activity
    • Change activity  behavior?
  • Correlation vs experimentation
    • causality ~
brain damage behavior
Brain Damage & Behavior
  • Correlate
    • area damaged  behavioral change
    • trepanation
    • Broca’s aphasia
    • Clinical Neuropsychology
  • Problems: variability
    • location of damage
    • spared behaviors/abilities
    • post mortem ~
brain damage behavior1
Brain Damage & Behavior
  • Experimental ablation
    • Lesion brain  behavior change?
  • Karl Lashley
    • search for ingram (memory trace)
    • concluded function not localized
  • Problems
    • multiple areas involved
    • may lesion tracts passing through ~
anatomy behavior modern techniques
Anatomy & Behavior: Modern Techniques
  • CAT (CT) scan
    • computer axial tomography
    • x-rays of brain
  • Advantages
    • noninvasive
    • patient still alive
  • Disadvantages
    • same causality problems
    • resolution ~
anatomy behavior modern techniques1
Anatomy & Behavior: Modern Techniques
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • anatomy
    • higher resolution than CAT
    • spinning H atoms ~
normal brain differences
Normal Brain Differences
  • Imaging
    • Staining
    • Radio-isotope labeling
  • Sex differences
    • sexual dimorphism
    • hypothalamus
    • corpus callosum
    • planum temporale ~
normal brain differences1
Normal Brain Differences
  • Hypothalamus
  • Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus - SDN
    • Male vs female sexual behavior ~
brain activity behavior
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Record activity during behavior
  • EEG
    • electroencephalograph
    • reads electrical activity of brain
brain activity behavior1
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • PET scan
    • Positron Emission Tomography
    • metabolic activity
    • radioactive 2-deoxyglucose
  • Disadvantages
    • spatial/temporal resolution
    • correlational ~
brain activity behavior fmri
Brain Activity & Behavior : fMRI
  • Functional MRI
    • detects increases in oxygen use
  • Advantages
    • anatomy & activity
    • High resolution spatial & temporal
  • Disadvantages
    • correlational ~
brain activity behavior2
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Change activity  change behavior?
  • Electrical Stimulation of Brain (ESB)
    • Fritz & Hitzig
    • Olds & Milner
  • Advantage
    • experimental
  • Disadvantage
    • invasive ~
brain activity behavior3
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Change activity  change behavior?
  • Electrical Stimulation of Brain (ESB)
    • Fritz & Hitzig
    • Olds & Milner
    • neurosurgery
  • Advantage
    • experimental
  • Disadvantage
    • invasive ~
brain activity behavior4
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Experimental Psychopharmacology
    • chemically change activity
    • learn about drugs
    • or use drugs to learn about brain & behavior
  • Block dopamine receptor
    • movement effects?
    • learning effects?
  • Combine with behavioral tests ~
brain activity behavior5
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine
    • effects on learning?
brain activity behavior6
Brain Activity & Behavior
  • Cellular imaging
    • radioactive labeling
    • similar idea to PET
  • Cellular changes during learning
    • role of Ca++ ions ~
genetic techniques
Genetic Techniques
  • Knock-out Mice
    • Genes
    • change microanatomy
    • alter function
  • Disable gene  no protein
    • receptor, enzyme, etc
    • evaluate effect on behavior
  • Obesity
  • Alcoholism ~