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Kingdom Protista. Protists. Chapter 19. 19.1 Introduction to Protists. Endosymbiosis. Theory believed to explain origin of eukaryotes and complex organelles like mitochondria & chloroplast. Large prokaryotes engulfed a smaller prokaryote and lived symbiotically

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slide2
Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Endosymbiosis

  • Theory believed to explain origin of eukaryotes and complex organelles like mitochondria & chloroplast
  • Large prokaryotes engulfed a smaller prokaryote and lived symbiotically
  • Eventually evolved into a single organism
slide4
Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Protists

  • All protists are eukaryotes.
  • Some reproduce asexually by mitosis while others exchange genetic material.
  • Most are single celled
  • First Eukaryotes on Earth
  • Must have moisture
slide5
Protists

Chapter 19

19.1 Introduction to Protists

Classifying Protists

  • Some scientists classify protists by their methods of obtaining nutrition.
  • Animal-like protists- Heterotroph
  • Plantlike protists- Autotroph
  • Funguslikeprotists-Saprotroph
animal like protists
Animal-like protists
  • Heterotrophs
  • Single-celled
  • Eat algea, bacteria or other protists
  • “protozoans” = “pre” animals
  • 4 phyla (groups) based on mode of movement
phylum zoomastigina flagellates
Phylum Zoomastigina - flagellates

Trypanasoma: Giardia:

Causes African sleeping sickness Causes intestinal infections

phylum sarcodina
Phylum Sarcodina
  • Move and feed through use of pseudopods
  • Pseudopod – temporary projection of the cytoplasm
  • i.e. Amoebas
  • When feeding, they surround food and bring into cell in the form of a food vacuole by endocytosis
phylum ciliophora ciliates
Phylum Ciliophora - ciliates
  • Use cilia for feeding and movement
  • Cilia: hair-like projections that flow back and forth like ores
  • Example: Paramecium
  • Contain macro (working copy) and micronucleus (reserve copy of genetic info)
  • Contactile vacuole removes excess water
  • Reproduce by conjugation or binary fission
ciliophora
Ciliophora
  • Stentor
  • Largest known protozoan
phylum apicomplexa sporozoans
Phylum Apicomplexa - sporozoans
  • Parasites
  • Move through blood of host organisms
  • Reproduce through spores
  • Ex: Plasmodium causes malaria.

Malaria sporozoite

protozoa structures
Protozoa Structures
  • Pellicle – A rigid, but flexible structure of microtubules that underlies the plasma membrane of many protozoans.
slide14
Trichocysts – Some pellicular structures are used for protection. These “threads” cover the body of the protozoan.
protists and disease
Protists and Disease
  • Malaria – effects 300-500 million people
    • Caused by the sporozoan Plasmodium carried by mosquitoe
  • African sleeping sickness
    • Caused by zooflagellateTrypanosoma
    • Spread by the bite of the Tsetse fly
  • Amoebic dysentery
    • Caused by amoeba in contaminated water
  • Giardia
    • Intestinal infection; ingested from infected waters
plant like protists aka algae
Plant-like ProtistsAKA: Algae
  • Autotrophs
  • phytoplankton
  • Contain chlorophyll and other pigments
  • Produce 70% of earth’s oxygen
  • 6 phyla
  • Classified by pigment

and structure

algae
Algae
  • Green
  • Brown
  • Red
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Diatom
  • Euglenoid
phylum chlorophyta green algae
Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae
  • Contain chlorophyll as main pigment
phylum phaeophyta brown algae
Phylum Phaeophyta – Brown algae
  • Contain brown photosynthetic pigment
  • Include Kelp
phylum rodophyta red algae
Phylum Rodophyta – red algae
  • Contain red photosynthetic pigments
  • Carrageenan used in ice cream and other yummy foods
phylum pyrrophyta dinoflagellates
Phylum Pyrrophyta - Dinoflagellates
  • Two flagella around “equator” to spin
  • One flagellum on end to propel forward
slide22
dinoflagellate

Cause red tides

phylum bacillariophyta diatoms
Phylum Bacillariophyta - Diatoms
  • Pill-box shape
  • Hard outer shell
diatoms
Diatoms
  • Diatomaceous earth
  • You brush your teeth with these
phylum euglenozoa euglenoids
Phylum Euglenozoa (Euglenoids)
  • Swim with flagella
  • Live in lakes and streams
  • Can also be heterotrophs!
  • Use eye-spot to detect light
  • Can reproduce asexually through binary fission
  • Example: euglena
fungus like protists
Fungus-like Protists
  • Feed on decaying matter and absorb nutrients- saprophyte
  • Cell wall with cellulose
  • Slime molds and Water molds/Downy Mildews
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