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Acids, Bases & Salts . Acid Properties : Sour taste, react with metals to produce hydrogen gas, electrolytes, affect indicators (turns blue litmus paper to red). Acids, Bases & Salts . Base Properties : Bitter taste, produce electrolytes, affect indicators (turns red litmus paper to blue).

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acids bases salts
Acids, Bases & Salts
  • Acid Properties:
  • Sour taste, react with metals to produce hydrogen gas, electrolytes, affect indicators (turns blue litmus paper to red)
acids bases salts2
Acids, Bases & Salts
  • Base Properties:
  • Bitter taste, produce electrolytes, affect indicators (turns red litmus paper to blue)
  • Electrolytes: substances that conduct electric current when dissolved in water.
  • Indicators: chemical substances that change color based on acid concentration.
  • Arrhenius Theory: acids produce H+ ions when dissolved (ionized) in water.
  • Arrhenius Theory: bases produce OH- ions when dissolved (ionized) in water.
  • Dissociation vs. ionization: dissociation is the separation of ions in solution. In ionization, neutral molecules react with water to form ions.
  • Bronsted-Lowry Theory: acids donate protons (H+) in a chemical reaction.
  • Ex. HCl(g) + H2O(l) --> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • The HCl gas donates a proton to the water molecule, producing the hydronium ion. HCl is considered an acid, water is considered a base.
  • Bronsted-Lowry Theory: bases accept protons (H+) in a chemical reaction.
  • HCl and Cl- are considered a conjugate acid/base pair.
  • Conjugate acid/base pairs: Conjugate base - the particle leftover after the acid donates a proton.
  • Conjugate acid/base pairs: Conjugate acid - the particle produced after the base accepts the proton.
  • Identify the acid, base, conjugate base and conjugate acid in the following: HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) --> H2O(l) + NaNO3(aq).
  • Practice problems #1-2, p. 576.
  • What do you want to know?
  • Lewis Theory: an acid is any substance that accepts an electron pair. A base is any substance that donates an electron pair.
  • NH3 + BF3 --> NH3BF3
  • Use electron dot diagrams to determine if a substance is a Lewis acid or base.
  • Ex. Classify Cl- as a Lewis acid or base.
  • Coordination complexes: molecular ligands (attachments) approach a metal cation and bond using secondary (d-orbital) valance.
  • Complex ion formation: ex. Ag+ + NH3 --> ? (coordination number of 2).
  • What is the name of [CoCl2(NH3)5]Br
  • Practice Problems #3-8, p. 578. Any questions?
acid nomenclature
Acid Nomenclature
  • Binary acids: acids consisting of 2 elements.
  • Ex. HCl
  • HI
  • HBr
acid nomenclature21
Acid Nomenclature
  • Ternary Acids and Bases: acids or bases containing three elements.
  • Common ternary acid - formed by using H+ and a common polyatomic ion.
acid nomenclature22
Acid Nomenclature
  • Use the polyatomic name and the suffix -ic.
  • Ex. H2SO4
  • HNO3
  • HClO3
acid nomenclature23
Acid Nomenclature
  • A ternary acid that is the same as the common acid but with one less oxygen uses the suffix -ous.
  • Ex. H2SO3
  • HClO2
acid nomenclature24
Acid Nomenclature
  • A ternary acid that is the same as the common acid but with two less oxygens uses the prefix -hypo and the suffix -ous.
  • Ex. HClO
acid nomenclature25
Acid Nomenclature
  • A ternary acid that is the same as the common acid but with one more oxygen uses the prefix -per and the suffix -ic.
  • Ex. HClO4
acid nomenclature26
Acid Nomenclature
  • Common ternary base - formed by using metal and the hydroxide polyatomic ion.
  • Ex. NaOH, Mg(OH)2
acid nomenclature27
Acid Nomenclature
  • Organic acids: carboxylic acids, -COOH
  • Name the chain and add -oic acid.
acid nomenclature28
Acid Nomenclature
  • Practice Problems #9-13, p. 580
  • Wha?
acid base behavior
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Consider a compound in the form HOX. If X is very electronegative then the H is given up as a proton and it acts as an acid. If not it acts as a base.
acid base behavior30
Acid/Base Behavior
  • So, nonmetals tend to form acids, metals tend to form bases when dissolved in water.
  • Ex. MgO
  • CO
acid base behavior31
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Acidic and Basic Anhydrides: acids and bases that have had water removed.
  • Ex. Acid anhydride + water --> acid
acid base behavior32
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Ex. Acid anhydride + water --> acid
  • SO2 + H2O --> H2SO3
acid base behavior33
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Ex. basic anhydride + water --> base
  • Na2O + H2O --> 2 NaOH
  • Practice problems #14-15 p. 583
acid base behavior34
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Acid base strength: not all acids complete ionize in water. That is a lot of the acid or base molecules remain unreacted.
  • Ex. Ammonia (weak base)
acid base behavior35
Acid/Base Behavior
  • Concept review #16-19 p. 584
salts and solutions
Salts and Solutions
  • Salt : an ionic compound that does not consist of H+ or OH-
  • Ex. KCl, MgO (any ionic compound that is not an Arrehnius acid or base)
  • Neutralization reaction: a acid reacts with a base to produce a salt and water.
  • Really just a double displacement reaction
  • Ex. Produce the products and balance the equation for the reaction of the acid HCl and the base AgOH.
  • Naming salts - who cares?
  • Ex. Sodium hydrogen carbonate
  • Ex. Sodium dihydrogen phosphate
net ionic equations
Net Ionic Equations
  • Some ions in a neutralization reaction are considered spectator ions. That is, they are unchanged after the reaction.
net ionic equations41
Net Ionic Equations
  • Chemists often write net ionic equations to show only those ions that actually take place in the reaction. Ex. HCl + NaOH
net ionic equations42
Net Ionic Equations
  • Polyprotic acids - go through two steps of ionization
  • Ex. Sulfuric acid
net ionic equations43
Net Ionic Equations
  • The binary acids HCl, HBr, and HI are strong acids, the rest are weak.
  • Ternary acids with 2 or more oxygens versus hydrogens are strong.
net ionic equations44
Net Ionic Equations
  • Organic acids are weak.
  • Polyprotic acids: second step always results in a weak acid
  • Group 1 and 2 bases are strong.
net ionic equations45
Net Ionic Equations
  • Molecules and weak acids and bases are not written in ionic form.
  • Salts are written in ionic form, oxides and gases are written as molecules.
net ionic equations46
Net Ionic Equations
  • Practice problems #23-27 p. 590. (in groups - 15 minutes)
ionization constant
Ionization Constant
  • The Keq for the ionization of a weak acid or base determines the extent that [H3O+] or [OH-] ions will be produced at equilibrium.
ionization constant48
Ionization Constant
  • Ka is the ionization constant of a weak acid. HX + H2O <--> H3O+ + X-.
  • What is Ka for this reaction?
ionization constant49
Ionization Constant
  • Kb is the ionization constant of a weak base. NH3+ H2O <--> NH4+ + OH-.
  • What is Kb for this reaction?
ionization constant50
Ionization Constant
  • Percent ionization = [amount ionized] / [original acid] x 100%
  • Problems 28-31, p. 592-593
ionization constant51
Ionization Constant
  • Common Ion Effect - adding ions that are the same as one of those produced by the ionization of a weak electrolyte …. (more)
ionization constant52
Ionization Constant
  • to a solution of the electrolyte suppresses its ionization. Why???
ionization constant53
Ionization Constant
  • Le Chatelier’s Principle - you are increasing the concentration of products. The system responds to reestablish equilibrium.
ionization constant54
Ionization Constant
  • Problems 42-65 p. 597-598.