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Inter-cluster distances are maximized. Intra-cluster distances are minimized. What is Cluster Analysis?. Finding groups of objects such that the objects in a group will be similar (or related) to one another and different from (or unrelated to) the objects in other groups.

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what is cluster analysis

Inter-cluster distances are maximized

Intra-cluster distances are minimized

What is Cluster Analysis?
  • Finding groups of objects such that the objects in a group will be similar (or related) to one another and different from (or unrelated to) the objects in other groups
applications of cluster analysis
Applications of Cluster Analysis
  • Understanding
    • Group related documents for browsing, group genes and proteins that have similar functionality, or group stocks with similar price fluctuations
  • Summarization
    • Reduce the size of large data sets

Clustering precipitation in Australia

what is not cluster analysis
What is not Cluster Analysis?
  • Supervised classification
    • Have class label information
  • Simple segmentation
    • Dividing students into different registration groups alphabetically, by last name
  • Results of a query
    • Groupings are a result of an external specification
  • Graph partitioning
    • Some mutual relevance and synergy, but areas are not identical
notion of a cluster can be ambiguous

How many clusters?

Six Clusters

Two Clusters

Four Clusters

Notion of a Cluster can be Ambiguous
types of clusterings
Types of Clusterings
  • A clustering is a set of clusters
  • Important distinction between hierarchical and partitionalsets of clusters
  • Partitional Clustering
    • A division data objects into non-overlapping subsets (clusters) such that each data object is in exactly one subset
  • Hierarchical clustering
    • A set of nested clusters organized as a hierarchical tree
hierarchical clustering
Hierarchical Clustering

Traditional Hierarchical Clustering

Traditional Dendrogram

Non-traditional Hierarchical Clustering

Non-traditional Dendrogram

other distinctions between sets of clusters
Other Distinctions Between Sets of Clusters
  • Exclusive versus non-exclusive
    • In non-exclusive clusterings, points may belong to multiple clusters.
    • Can represent multiple classes or ‘border’ points
  • Fuzzy versus non-fuzzy
    • In fuzzy clustering, a point belongs to every cluster with some weight between 0 and 1
    • Weights must sum to 1
    • Probabilistic clustering has similar characteristics
types of clusters center based
Types of Clusters: Center-Based
  • Center-based
    • A cluster is a set of objects such that an object in a cluster is closer (more similar) to the “center” of a cluster, than to the center of any other cluster
    • The center of a cluster is often a centroid, the average of all the points in the cluster, or a medoid, the most “representative” point of a cluster

4 center-based clusters

clustering algorithms
Clustering Algorithms
  • K-means and its variants
  • Hierarchical clustering
k means clustering
K-means Clustering
  • Partitional clustering approach
  • Each cluster is associated with a centroid (center point)
  • Each point is assigned to the cluster with the closest centroid
  • Number of clusters, K, must be specified
  • The basic algorithm is very simple
k means clustering details
K-means Clustering – Details
  • Initial centroids are often chosen randomly.
    • Clusters produced vary from one run to another.
  • The centroid is (typically) the mean of the points in the cluster.
  • ‘Closeness’ is measured by Euclidean distance (or other norms)
  • K-means will converge for common similarity measures mentioned above.
  • Most of the convergence happens in the first few iterations.
    • Often the stopping condition is changed to ‘Until relatively few points change clusters’
  • Complexity is O( n * K * I * d )
    • n = number of points, K = number of clusters, I = number of iterations, d = number of attributes
two different k means clusterings

Optimal Clustering

Sub-optimal Clustering

Two different K-means Clusterings

Original Points

evaluating k means clusters
Evaluating K-means Clusters
  • Most common measure is Sum of Squared Error (SSE)
    • For each point, the error is the distance to the nearest cluster
    • To get SSE, we square these errors and sum them.
    • x is a data point in cluster Ci and mi is the representative point for cluster Ci
      • can show that micorresponds to the center (mean) of the cluster
    • Given two clusters, we can choose the one with the smallest error
    • One easy way to reduce SSE is to increase K, the number of clusters
      • A good clustering with smaller K can have a lower SSE than a poor clustering with higher K
problems with selecting initial points
Problems with Selecting Initial Points
  • If there are K ‘real’ clusters then the chance of selecting one centroid from each cluster is small.
    • Chance is relatively small when K is large
    • If clusters are the same size, n, then
    • For example, if K = 10, then probability = 10!/1010 = 0.00036
    • Sometimes the initial centroids will readjust themselves in ‘right’ way, and sometimes they don’t
    • Consider an example of five pairs of clusters
solutions to initial centroids problem
Solutions to Initial Centroids Problem
  • Multiple runs
    • Helps, but probability is not on your side
  • Sample and use hierarchical clustering to determine initial centroids
  • Select more than k initial centroids and then select among these initial centroids
    • Select most widely separated
  • Postprocessing
handling empty clusters
Handling Empty Clusters
  • Basic K-means algorithm can yield empty clusters
  • Several strategies
    • Choose the point that contributes most to SSE
    • Choose a point from the cluster with the highest SSE
    • If there are several empty clusters, the above can be repeated several times.
updating centers incrementally
Updating Centers Incrementally
  • In the basic K-means algorithm, centroids are updated after all points are assigned to a centroid
  • An alternative is to update the centroids after each assignment (incremental approach)
    • Each assignment updates zero or two centroids
    • More expensive
    • Introduces an order dependency
    • Never get an empty cluster
    • Can use “weights” to change the impact
pre processing and post processing
Pre-processing and Post-processing
  • Pre-processing
    • Normalize the data
    • Eliminate outliers
  • Post-processing
    • Eliminate small clusters that may represent outliers
    • Split ‘loose’ clusters, i.e., clusters with relatively high SSE
    • Merge clusters that are ‘close’ and that have relatively low SSE
    • Can use these steps during the clustering process
      • ISODATA
bisecting k means
Bisecting K-means
  • Bisecting K-means algorithm
    • Variant of K-means that can produce a partitional or a hierarchical clustering
limitations of k means
Limitations of K-means
  • K-means has problems when clusters are of differing
    • Sizes
    • Densities
    • Non-globular shapes
  • K-means has problems when the data contains outliers.
limitations of k means differing sizes
Limitations of K-means: Differing Sizes

K-means (3 Clusters)

Original Points

limitations of k means differing density
Limitations of K-means: Differing Density

K-means (3 Clusters)

Original Points

limitations of k means non globular shapes
Limitations of K-means: Non-globular Shapes

Original Points

K-means (2 Clusters)

overcoming k means limitations
Overcoming K-means Limitations

Original Points K-means Clusters

  • One solution is to use many clusters.
    • Find parts of clusters, but need to put together.
hierarchical clustering1
Hierarchical Clustering
  • Produces a set of nested clusters organized as a hierarchical tree
  • Can be visualized as a dendrogram
    • A tree like diagram that records the sequences of merges or splits
strengths of hierarchical clustering
Strengths of Hierarchical Clustering
  • Do not have to assume any particular number of clusters
    • Any desired number of clusters can be obtained by ‘cutting’ the dendogram at the proper level
  • They may correspond to meaningful taxonomies
    • Example in biological sciences (e.g., animal kingdom, phylogeny reconstruction, …)
hierarchical clustering2
Hierarchical Clustering
  • Two main types of hierarchical clustering
    • Agglomerative:
      • Start with the points as individual clusters
      • At each step, merge the closest pair of clusters until only one cluster (or k clusters) left
    • Divisive:
      • Start with one, all-inclusive cluster
      • At each step, split a cluster until each cluster contains a point (or there are k clusters)
  • Traditional hierarchical algorithms use a similarity or distance matrix
    • Merge or split one cluster at a time
agglomerative clustering algorithm
Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm
  • More popular hierarchical clustering technique
  • Basic algorithm is straightforward
    • Compute the proximity matrix
    • Let each data point be a cluster
    • Repeat
    • Merge the two closest clusters
    • Update the proximity matrix
    • Until only a single cluster remains
  • Key operation is the computation of the proximity of two clusters
    • Different approaches to defining the distance between clusters distinguish the different algorithms
starting situation

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

Starting Situation
  • Start with clusters of individual points and a proximity matrix

Proximity Matrix

intermediate situation

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Intermediate Situation
  • After some merging steps, we have some clusters

C3

C4

Proximity Matrix

C1

C5

C2

intermediate situation1

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

Intermediate Situation
  • We want to merge the two closest clusters (C2 and C5) and update the proximity matrix.

C3

C4

Proximity Matrix

C1

C5

C2

after merging
After Merging
  • The question is “How do we update the proximity matrix?”

C2 U C5

C1

C3

C4

C1

?

? ? ? ?

C2 U C5

C3

C3

?

C4

?

C4

Proximity Matrix

C1

C2 U C5

how to define inter cluster similarity

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

How to Define Inter-Cluster Similarity

Similarity?

  • MIN
  • MAX
  • Group Average
  • Distance Between Centroids

Proximity Matrix

how to define inter cluster similarity1

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

How to Define Inter-Cluster Similarity
  • MIN
  • MAX
  • Group Average
  • Distance Between Centroids

Proximity Matrix

how to define inter cluster similarity2

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

How to Define Inter-Cluster Similarity
  • MIN
  • MAX
  • Group Average
  • Distance Between Centroids

Proximity Matrix

how to define inter cluster similarity3

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

How to Define Inter-Cluster Similarity
  • MIN
  • MAX
  • Group Average
  • Distance Between Centroids

Proximity Matrix

how to define inter cluster similarity4

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

. . .

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

.

.

.

How to Define Inter-Cluster Similarity

  • MIN
  • MAX
  • Group Average
  • Distance Between Centroids

Proximity Matrix

cluster similarity min or single link

1

2

3

4

5

Cluster Similarity: MIN or Single Link
  • Similarity of two clusters is based on the two most similar (closest) points in the different clusters
    • Determined by one pair of points, i.e., by one link in the proximity graph.
hierarchical clustering min

5

1

3

5

2

1

2

3

6

4

4

Hierarchical Clustering: MIN

Nested Clusters

Dendrogram

strength of min

Two Clusters

Strength of MIN

Original Points

  • Can handle non-elliptical shapes
limitations of min

Two Clusters

Limitations of MIN

Original Points

  • Sensitive to noise and outliers
cluster similarity max or complete linkage

1

2

3

4

5

Cluster Similarity: MAX or Complete Linkage
  • Similarity of two clusters is based on the two least similar (most distant) points in the different clusters
    • Determined by all pairs of points in the two clusters
hierarchical clustering max

4

1

2

5

5

2

3

6

3

1

4

Hierarchical Clustering: MAX

Nested Clusters

Dendrogram

strength of max

Two Clusters

Strength of MAX

Original Points

  • Less susceptible to noise and outliers
limitations of max

Two Clusters

Limitations of MAX

Original Points

  • Tends to break large clusters
  • Biased towards globular clusters
cluster similarity group average

1

2

3

4

5

Cluster Similarity: Group Average
  • Proximity of two clusters is the average of pairwise proximity between points in the two clusters.
  • Need to use average connectivity for scalability since total proximity favors large clusters
hierarchical clustering group average

5

4

1

2

5

2

3

6

1

4

3

Hierarchical Clustering: Group Average

Nested Clusters

Dendrogram

hierarchical clustering group average1
Hierarchical Clustering: Group Average
  • Compromise between Single and Complete Link
  • Strengths
    • Less susceptible to noise and outliers
  • Limitations
    • Biased towards globular clusters
hierarchical clustering comparison

5

1

5

5

4

1

3

1

4

1

2

2

5

2

5

5

2

1

5

2

5

2

2

2

3

3

6

6

3

6

3

1

6

3

3

1

4

4

4

1

3

4

4

4

Hierarchical Clustering: Comparison

MIN

MAX

Ward’s Method

Group Average

hierarchical clustering time and space requirements
Hierarchical Clustering: Time and Space requirements
  • O(N2) space since it uses the proximity matrix.
    • N is the number of points.
  • O(N3) time in many cases
    • There are N steps and at each step the size, N2, proximity matrix must be updated and searched
    • Complexity can be reduced to O(N2 log(N) ) time for some approaches
hierarchical clustering problems and limitations
Hierarchical Clustering: Problems and Limitations
  • Once a decision is made to combine two clusters, it cannot be undone
  • No objective function is directly minimized
  • Different schemes have problems with one or more of the following:
    • Sensitivity to noise and outliers
    • Difficulty handling different sized clusters and convex shapes
    • Breaking large clusters
cluster validity
Cluster Validity
  • For supervised classification we have a variety of measures to evaluate how good our model is
    • Accuracy, precision, recall
  • For cluster analysis, the analogous question is how to evaluate the “goodness” of the resulting clusters?
  • But “clusters are in the eye of the beholder”!
  • Then why do we want to evaluate them?
    • To avoid finding patterns in noise
    • To compare clustering algorithms
    • To compare two sets of clusters
    • To compare two clusters