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  1. TURKEYPOULTRY BIOSECURITYBackyard and Small Scale CommercialProduction Nedret Durutan and Cüneyt Okan

  2. first AI case in Turkey MANYAS, October 2005, free range turkeys

  3. field studies conducted • Feb 2006: Assessment of AI Impact on Backyard Poultry • April/May 2007 : Poultry Keeping Systems and Biosecurity

  4. provinces visited (42 settlement areas in 12 provinces) provinces information collected by questionnaires (12 settlement areas in 7 provinces)

  5. methods used • focus group meetings • interviews • distant surveys • over 600 stakeholders were contacted

  6. methods used

  7. STUDY I: An Assessment of AI Impact on Backyard Poultry

  8. objectives • to assess: • nature of the backyard poultry, • impact of AI particularly on smallholders, • level of preparedness at the individual and community level • factors hindering the implementation of disease control plans

  9. major findings the nature of backyard poultry • the reason for keeping • income • caretakers • source of animals • shelter • feed • veterinary services

  10. major findings the majority want to keep backyard poultry • to provide fresh eggs and meat for the family • to offer guests • to barter in the village • to provide pocket money for women • to provide income (selling oversupply) • as companion animals and hobby

  11. major findings rural people believe: • there is no AI but ND • AI is not dangerous • lab tests could be inaccurate • AI is government’s problem denial / disbelief taking measures and implementing disease control plans

  12. major findings public awareness material did not emphasize: • AI is different from ND • AI risk is not temporary • animals looking healthy could be infected and transmit disease

  13. major findings communication during and after AI crisis • inconsistent, insufficient and random messages from too many sources • poor information dissemination at the village level • lack of guidance on the future of the backyard poultry

  14. STUDY II:Poultry Keeping Systems and Biosecurity

  15. objectives • to review the current biosecurity situation at all levels of the poultry sector (FAO defined sectors 3-4) • identify risk areas • develop pilot projects

  16. major findings common biosecurity perception “biosecurity is to protect one’s own flock from diseases” this dictates how the stakeholders act

  17. major findings • big actors of the sector are concerned about the backyard • backyard growers and small scale producers do not analyze the situation and develop own preventive measures

  18. major findings Vaillancourt 2002: list of top biosecurity risks (16) assessment (yes /no) yes: indicate risk • large export oriented broiler producers • small scale locally operating broiler companies • egg producers • backyard growers

  19. major findings

  20. behavioral patterns in biosecurity applications a set of biosecurity measures were taken (Vaillancourt 2002) poultry producers’ behaviors in applications of these were questioned (as always, frequently, sometimes, seldom, not practiced) for those that are not applied as habit (always and frequently) costs were reviewed (as the cheapest, cheaper, expensive, most expensive) whether those are affordable

  21. biosecurity measures • visitor related • grower and employees • company or farm policies • physical farm attributes • management • sanitation • transportation • regional

  22. major findings: HABIT high-benefit biosecurity measures backyard production always - frequently - sometimes 5% seldom 11% not practiced 84% nothing is practiced as a habit, mindset needs to be changed totally

  23. HABIT high-benefit biosecurity measures egg producers always 12% frequently - sometimes 42% seldom 31% not practiced 15% only 12% of the measures are routinely practiced, major improvements needed

  24. HABIT high-benefit biosecurity measures small scale locally operating broiler companies always 22% frequently - sometimes 41% seldom 19% not practiced 18% 22% of the measures are routinely practiced, serious efforts needed for improvement

  25. major findings: COST cost of measures backyard production cheapest 32% cheaper 42% expensive 16% most expensive 10% at least 74% of the measures are highly affordable

  26. COST cost of measures egg producers cheapest 31% cheaper 35% expensive 30% most expensive 4% 65% of the measures that are not practiced routinely are highly affordable

  27. COST cost of measures small scale, locally operating broiler companies cheapest 33% cheaper 38% expensive 24% most expensive 5% 71% of the measures that are not routinely practiced involve low cost, cost is not a barrier for non-compliance

  28. what is needed? • mindset change • behavior change • developing awareness • filling the information gaps • effective enforcing of measures

  29. major findings: backyard status of backyard production (in 2007) • in villages where culling took place, restocking has been done or is contemplated, • those who drop backyard production due to unsuppressed fear are contemplating re-starting production,

  30. major findings • some adopted “wait and see” attitude, • few seemed to have stopped, at least for the time being,

  31. misconceptions and beliefs • the major barrier in convincing the rural populations that AI is dangerous • their past experience with the New Castle Disease

  32. misconceptions and beliefs • AI was a one-time problem, no mass poultry and human deaths in the country • wetlands are not a problem, ducks and geese always wonder around, nothing happened • wild birds are healthy, hunting them is not a problem • spent hen trade for re-stocking does not pose any problem

  33. misconceptions and beliefs unless: • the differences of AI and ND are explained well to the rural people • they understand, realize, and believe that these two diseases are different

  34. misconceptions and beliefs they will continue to: see no harm in contacting the sick animals without taking any measures

  35. misconceptions and beliefs they will continue to: contact with the wild birds and their habitat

  36. misconceptions and beliefs they will continue to: let the backyard poultry roam freely

  37. misconceptions and beliefs they will continue to: buy and sell chicks in the market

  38. identifying risk • a set of criteria was developed by taking the various modes of AI spread, • the outbreaks in Turkey did not coincide necessarily with each and every criteria • the probabilities increase as a result of their singular or combined occurrence and they are considered as basic indicators of risk

  39. wetlands major wild bird migration routes high poultry population high concentration of asymptomatic carriers high rural population high population (human density) high agricultural activity large rice fields prolonged winters criteria used

  40. reed cutting hunting fishing livestock grazing an example: wetlands

  41. risk matrix

  42. provinces and risk categories

  43. pilot projects • I : Mobile Information Kiosks for Rural Markets in Significant Risk Areas • II : Monitoring Spent Hen Trade • III: Risk Reduction in Backyard Poultry

  44. pilot projects • IV : Improving the Perceptions of Biosecurity Risks for Small and Medium Scale Commercial Broiler and Egg Producers • V :Building AI Awareness for Wetland Users

  45. Mobile Information Kiosks for Rural Markets in Significant Risk Areas

  46. objectives • to improve knowledge, awareness and vigilance in significant risk areas • by taking the information sources to locations where information exchange regularly takes place

  47. objectives • facilitate face-to-face communication between the villagers and the professionals • to make the verbal and audio-visual information available to large audience in a cost effective manner

  48. project description • a vehicle • a team of professionals ( for animal and human health-at least one female) • public awareness and training equipment and material • local market schedule

  49. Monitoring Spent HenTrade

  50. objectives • to ensure that the spent hens reach the intended slaughterhouses to be disposed • to improve the monitoring of spent layer transportation • to reduce the illicit live poultry trade