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Poultry and Egg Production:. M.E. Persia Iowa State University September 8 , 2011. Background Information . What is poultry production? Meat chickens Laying hens (egg production) Meat turkeys Meat ducks Ratites (ostrich and emu) Game birds (quail, pheasants and partridge)

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Poultry and egg production

Poultry and Egg Production:

M.E. Persia

Iowa State University

September 8, 2011


Background information
Background Information

  • What is poultry production?

    • Meat chickens

    • Laying hens (egg production)

    • Meat turkeys

    • Meat ducks

    • Ratites (ostrich and emu)

    • Game birds (quail, pheasants and partridge)

    • Breeding stock


Meat chicken production
Meat Chicken Production

2010 US Poultry and Egg Association


Egg production laying hens
Egg Production (Laying Hens)

2010 American Egg Board


Meat turkey production
Meat Turkey Production

2008 National Turkey Federation


Importance of poultry in iowa
Importance of Poultry in Iowa

Farmgate receipts animal agriculture in Iowa (2005)

  • Approximately 6% of Animal Agriculture Farm Gate Receipts in Iowa

  • Accounts for over $500 million annually


Commercial production
Commercial Production

  • Size

    • Broiler 22,000-26,000 birds per house

      5 to 7 flocks a year

    • Layer 200,000-350,000 birds per house

      0.5 to 1 flocks a year

    • Turkey 15,000 birds per house

      3 flocks a year

  • Integration


An integrated approach
An Integrated Approach

Grandparent Flock

Parent Flocks

Hatchery

Hatchery

Retail

Production Flocks

Feed Mill

Rendering Plant

Processing Plant

Distribution


Chicks
Chicks

  • Crossbred chicks to gain growth advantage

Grandparent

Male

Grandparent

Female

Grandparent

Male

Grandparent

Female

Parent

Female

Parent

Male

Productive Stock


Chicks1
Chicks

  • Selection has increased efficiency


Chicks2
Chicks

  • Hatchery

    • Vaccination

    • Sorted

    • Sexed

  • Transportation

    • From hatchery to farm


Poultry and egg production
Feed

  • Majority of the cost of poultry production

  • Source and purchase complete feed or ingredients to make feed

  • Several diets fed over the production cycle


Poultry and egg production
Feed

  • Feed Mill

    • Broiler and turkey rations are pelleted

    • Laying hen diets are fed as mash

    • One feed mill makes the diets for several farms in a region



Shelter
Shelter

Broiler house

Laying facility


Air ventilation and temp control
Air, Ventilation and Temp. Control

  • Movement of air

    • Cool birds

    • Remove volatile compounds

    • Refresh air

  • Brooding of young chicks

  • Lighting


Process
Process

  • Broiler/Turkey

    • Hatchery – 21 or 28 days

      • Sanitation important

      • Incubation and hatching

    • Growout – 35 to 56 d for Broilers and 16 to 21 wks for Turkeys

      • All in all out

      • Biosecurity important


Process1
Process

  • Broiler/Turkey

    • Processing plant(approximately 1 day)

      • Located away from farms (must transport birds)

      • Labor intensive

      • High adoption of technology/automation

      • Sanitation important (Food Safety)

      • Packaging and storage

      • Further processing


Process2
Process

  • Laying hen

    • Hatchery – 21 days

      • Similar to meat birds

      • Sanitation important

      • Sex all chicks

    • Pullets – 18 weeks

      • Immature female laying hen

      • Sunk cost


Process3
Process

  • Laying hen

    • Lay cycle – 40 to 50 weeks

      • Automation – egg belt

      • Induced Molting – increase productivity

    • Processing plant

      • Located on Farm

      • Clean eggs

      • Candle and remove defective

      • Grade eggs

      • Further processing



What are the products eggs
What are the products? (eggs)

Shell Eggs

Liquid Egg Whites

Liquid Egg Yolks

Liquid Egg Substitutes

Powdered Whole Eggs

Powdered Egg Whites

Meringue Powder

Powdered Egg Substitutes

Hard Cooked or Pickled Eggs



Production equation
Production equation

Inputs

Outputs

Poultry products

Hatchery waste

Manure/litter

Spent hens

Egg waste/carcass trim

Dust/odor/ammonia

Noise/flies

  • Chicks (Genetic Stock)

  • Feed

  • Medication

  • Water

  • Shelter

  • Ventilation/Temp. Control

  • Labor/Process

  • Time