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Specialized Business Information Systems. Chapter 11. Principles and Learning Objectives. Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems.

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specialized business information systems

Specialized Business Information Systems

Chapter 11

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

principles and learning objectives
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems.
    • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems.
    • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics.
    • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system.

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

principles and learning objectives3
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully.
    • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems.
    • Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system.
    • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system.
    • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems.

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

principles and learning objectives4
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively.
    • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications.
  • Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals.
    • Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use.

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

an overview of artificial intelligence

An Overview of Artificial Intelligence

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the nature of intelligence
The Nature of Intelligence
  • Learn from experience & apply the knowledge
  • Handle complex situations
  • Solve problems when important information is missing
  • Determine what is important

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the nature of intelligence7
The Nature of Intelligence
  • React quickly & correctly to new situations
  • Understand visual images
  • Process & manipulate symbols
  • Be creative & imaginative
  • Use heuristics

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the difference between natural and artificial intelligence
The Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the major branches of artificial intelligence
The Major Branches of ArtificialIntelligence

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

an overview of expert systems

An Overview of Expert Systems

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

characteristics of an expert system
Characteristics of an Expert System
  • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions
  • Can display “intelligent” behavior
  • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships
  • Can provide portable knowledge
  • Can deal with uncertainty
  • Not widely used or tested

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

characteristics of an expert system12
Characteristics of an Expert System
  • Limited to relatively narrow problems
  • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge
  • Possibility of error
  • Cannot refine its own knowledge
  • May have high development costs
  • Raise legal and ethical concerns

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

capabilities of an expert systems
Capabilities of an Expert Systems
  • Strategic goal setting
  • Planning
  • Design
  • Decision-making
  • Quality control and monitoring
  • Diagnosis

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

capabilities of expert systems
Capabilities of Expert Systems

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

when to use expert systems
When to Use Expert Systems
  • High payoff
  • Preserve scarce expertise
  • Distribute expertise
  • Provide more consistency than humans
  • Faster solutions than humans
  • Training expertise

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

components of an expert system
Components of an Expert System

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

knowledge base
Knowledge Base
  • Assembling human experts
  • The use of fuzzy logic
  • The use of rules
  • The use of cases

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

knowledge base18
Knowledge Base

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

inference engine
Inference Engine
  • Backward chaining
  • Forward chaining
  • Comparison of backward and forward chaining

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the use of rules
The Use of Rules

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

the knowledge acquisition facility
The Knowledge Acquisition Facility

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

components of an expert system22
Components of an Expert System
  • The explanation facility
  • The knowledge acquisition facility
  • The user interface

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

expert systems development
Expert Systems Development

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

participants in developing and using expert systems
Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems
  • Domain expert
  • Knowledge engineer
  • Knowledge user

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

participants in developing and using expert systems25
Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

domain experts
Domain Experts
  • Recognize the real problem
  • Develop a general framework for problem solving
  • Formulate theories about the situation
  • Develop and use general rules to solve a problem
  • Know when to break the rules or general principles
  • Solve problems quickly and efficiently

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

expert systems development tools and techniques
Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

expert systems development tools and techniques28
Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

expert systems development alternatives
Expert Systems Development Alternatives

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

applications of expert systems and artificial intelligence
Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence
  • Credit granting and loan analysis
  • Stock picking
  • Catching cheats and terrorists
  • Budgeting

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

applications of expert system and artificial intelligence
Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence
  • Information management and retrieval
  • Games
  • Virus detection
  • Hospitals and medical facilities

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

virtual reality

Virtual Reality

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

virtual reality33
Virtual Reality
  • Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
  • Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer
  • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

segway
Segway

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

interface devices
Interface Devices
  • Head-mounted display (HMD)
  • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM)
  • CAVE
  • Haptic interface

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

forms of virtual reality
Forms of Virtual Reality
  • Mouse-controlled navigation
  • Stereo projection systems
  • Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

useful applications
Useful Applications
  • Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists
  • Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance
  • Entertainment
    • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

useful applications38
Useful Applications
  • Real Estate Marketing and Tourism
    • Used to increase real estate sales
    • Virtual reality tour of the White House

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

other specialized systems
Other Specialized Systems
  • Segway Personal Transporter
  • Adaptive brain interface technology
  • Personal awareness assistant (PAA)

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

summary
Summary
  • Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain
  • Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience
  • Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior
  • Virtual reality systems - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
  • Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways. For example, Segway

MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan