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Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11 Principles and Learning Objectives Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems.

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specialized business information systems

Specialized Business Information Systems

Chapter 11

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

principles and learning objectives
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems.
    • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems.
    • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics.
    • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

principles and learning objectives3
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully.
    • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems.
    • Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system.
    • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system.
    • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

principles and learning objectives4
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively.
    • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications.
  • Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals.
    • Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use.

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

an overview of artificial intelligence

An Overview of Artificial Intelligence

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the nature of intelligence
The Nature of Intelligence
  • Learn from experience & apply the knowledge
  • Handle complex situations
  • Solve problems when important information is missing
  • Determine what is important

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the nature of intelligence7
The Nature of Intelligence
  • React quickly & correctly to new situations
  • Understand visual images
  • Process & manipulate symbols
  • Be creative & imaginative
  • Use heuristics

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the difference between natural and artificial intelligence
The Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the major branches of artificial intelligence
The Major Branches of ArtificialIntelligence

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

an overview of expert systems

An Overview of Expert Systems

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

characteristics of an expert system
Characteristics of an Expert System
  • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions
  • Can display “intelligent” behavior
  • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships
  • Can provide portable knowledge
  • Can deal with uncertainty
  • Not widely used or tested

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

characteristics of an expert system12
Characteristics of an Expert System
  • Limited to relatively narrow problems
  • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge
  • Possibility of error
  • Cannot refine its own knowledge
  • May have high development costs
  • Raise legal and ethical concerns

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

capabilities of an expert systems
Capabilities of an Expert Systems
  • Strategic goal setting
  • Planning
  • Design
  • Decision-making
  • Quality control and monitoring
  • Diagnosis

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

capabilities of expert systems
Capabilities of Expert Systems

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

when to use expert systems
When to Use Expert Systems
  • High payoff
  • Preserve scarce expertise
  • Distribute expertise
  • Provide more consistency than humans
  • Faster solutions than humans
  • Training expertise

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

components of an expert system
Components of an Expert System

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

knowledge base
Knowledge Base
  • Assembling human experts
  • The use of fuzzy logic
  • The use of rules
  • The use of cases

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

knowledge base18
Knowledge Base

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

inference engine
Inference Engine
  • Backward chaining
  • Forward chaining
  • Comparison of backward and forward chaining

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the use of rules
The Use of Rules

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

the knowledge acquisition facility
The Knowledge Acquisition Facility

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

components of an expert system22
Components of an Expert System
  • The explanation facility
  • The knowledge acquisition facility
  • The user interface

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

expert systems development
Expert Systems Development

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

participants in developing and using expert systems
Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems
  • Domain expert
  • Knowledge engineer
  • Knowledge user

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

participants in developing and using expert systems25
Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

domain experts
Domain Experts
  • Recognize the real problem
  • Develop a general framework for problem solving
  • Formulate theories about the situation
  • Develop and use general rules to solve a problem
  • Know when to break the rules or general principles
  • Solve problems quickly and efficiently

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

expert systems development tools and techniques
Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

expert systems development tools and techniques28
Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

expert systems development alternatives
Expert Systems Development Alternatives

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

applications of expert systems and artificial intelligence
Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence
  • Credit granting and loan analysis
  • Stock picking
  • Catching cheats and terrorists
  • Budgeting

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

applications of expert system and artificial intelligence
Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence
  • Information management and retrieval
  • Games
  • Virus detection
  • Hospitals and medical facilities

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

virtual reality

Virtual Reality

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

virtual reality33
Virtual Reality
  • Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
  • Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer
  • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

segway
Segway

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

interface devices
Interface Devices
  • Head-mounted display (HMD)
  • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM)
  • CAVE
  • Haptic interface

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

forms of virtual reality
Forms of Virtual Reality
  • Mouse-controlled navigation
  • Stereo projection systems
  • Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

useful applications
Useful Applications
  • Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists
  • Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance
  • Entertainment
    • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

useful applications38
Useful Applications
  • Real Estate Marketing and Tourism
    • Used to increase real estate sales
    • Virtual reality tour of the White House

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

other specialized systems
Other Specialized Systems
  • Segway Personal Transporter
  • Adaptive brain interface technology
  • Personal awareness assistant (PAA)

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition

summary
Summary
  • Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain
  • Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience
  • Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior
  • Virtual reality systems - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
  • Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways. For example, Segway

Principles of Information Systems, Sixth Edition