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Network Monitoring and Measurement and its application in security field. Miao Luo, Wei Jiang. Definition. network traffic measurement is the process of measuring the amount and type of traffic on a particular network. This is especially important with regard to effective bandwidth management.

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definition
Definition
  • network traffic measurementis the process of measuring the amount and type of traffic on a particular network. This is especially important with regard to effective bandwidth management.
  • network monitoringdescribes the use of a system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing systems and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages via email, pager or other alarms. It is a subset of the functions involved in network management.
motivation
Motivation
  • Needs of service providers:

-Understand the behavior of their networks

-Provide fast, high-quality, reliable service to satisfy customers and thus reduce churn rate

-Plan for network deployment and expansion

-SLA monitoring, Network security

-Usage-based billing for network users (like telephone calls)

-Marketing using CRM data

  • Needs of Customers:

-Want to get their money’s worth

-Fast, reliable, high-quality, secure, virus-free Internet access

application
Application
  • Network Problem Determination and Analysis
  • Traffic Report Generation
  • Intrusion & Hacking Attack (e.g., DoS, DDoS) Detection
  • Service Level Monitoring (SLM)
  • Network Planning
  • Usage-based Billing
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  • Marketing
the general traffic flow measurement process

packets

packets

Packet

Capturing

PAYLOAD HEAD

PAYLOAD HEAD

PAYLOAD HEAD

PAYLOAD HEAD

flow records

flow records

flow records

The General Traffic Flow Measurement Process

Analysis

by applications (TE, attack detect., QoS monitoring, accounting, …)

Sampling

packets

Filtering

Observation

Point

Visualize

(FlowScan)

Classification &

Flow Recording

Store

(TCPdump)

flow records

Sampling

Display

(Ethereal)

Filtering

… other …

problems
Problems
  • Capturing Packets:

High-speed networks (Mbps ? Gbps ? Tbps)

High-volume traffic

Streaming media (Windows Media, Real Media, Quicktime)

P2P traffic

Network Security Attacks

  • Flow Generation & Storage:

What packet information to save to perform various analysis?

How to minimize storage requirements?

  • Analysis:

How to analyze and generate data needed quickly?

What kinds of info needs to be generated? -- Depends on applications

goals
Goals
  • Capture all packets
  • Generate flows
  • Store flows efficiently
  • Analyze data efficiently
  • Generate various reports or information that are suitable for various application areas

Develop a flexible, scalable traffic monitoring and analysis system for high-speed, high-volume, rich media IP networks

network monitoring metrics
Network Monitoring Metrics
  • CAIDA Metrics Working Group (www.caida.org)

-Latency

-Packet Loss

-Throughput

-Link Utilization

-Availability

  • IETF’s IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Working Group

-Connectivity (RFC 2687)

-One-Way Delay (RFC 2679)

-One-Way Packet Loss (RFC 2680)

-Round Trip Delay (RFC 2681)

-Delay Variation

-Bulk transfer capacity

slide9

Connectivity

Availability

Functionality

One way loss

Loss

RT loss

Network Monitoring

Metrics

One way delay

Delay

RT delay

Delay variance

Capacity

Utilization

Bandwidth

Throughput

slide10
Availability: The percentage of a specified time interval during which the system was available for normal use.

-Connectivity: the physical connectivity of network elements.

-Functionality: whether the associated system works well or not.

  • Latency: The time taken for a packet to travel from a host to another.

-Round Trip Delay = Forward transport delay + server delay + backward transport delay

-Ping is still the most commonly used to measure latency.

  • Link Utilization over a specified interval is simply the throughput for the link expressed as a percentage of the access rate.
monitoring method
Monitoring Method
  • Active Monitoring
  • Passive Monitoring
active monitoring
Active Monitoring
  • Performed by sending test traffic into network

-Generate test packets periodically or on-demand

-Measure performance of test packets or responses

-Take the statistics

  • Impose extra traffic on network and distort its behavior in the process
  • Test packet can be blocked by firewall or processed at low priority by routers
  • Mainly used to monitor network performance
passive monitoring
Passive Monitoring
  • Carried out by observing network traffic

-Collect packets from a link or network flow from a router

-Perform analysis on captured packets for various purposes

-Network device performance degrades by mirroring or flow export

  • Used to perform various traffic usage/characterization analysis/intrusion detection
software in network monitoring and management
Software in Network Monitoring and Management
  • EPM
  • The ping program
  • SNMP servers
  • IBM AURORA Network Performance Profiling System
  • Intellipool Network Monitor
  • Jumpnode
  • Microsoft Network Monitor 3
  • MRTG
  • Nagios (formerly Netsaint)
  • Netdisco
  • NetQoS
  • NetXMS Scalable network and application monitoring system
software in network monitoring and management1
Software in Network Monitoring and Management
  • Opennms
  • PRTG
  • Pandora (Free Monitoring System) - Network and Application Monitoring System
  • PIKT
  • RANCID - monitors router/switch configuration changes
  • RRDtool
  • siNMs by Siemens
  • SysOrb Server & Network Monitoring System
  • Sentinet3 - Network and Systems Monitoring Appliance
  • ServersCheck Monitoring Software
  • Cacti network graphing solution
  • Zabbix - Network and Application Monitoring System
  • Zenoss - Network and Systems Monitoring Platform
  • Level Platforms - Software support for network monitoring
security monitoring and management
Security Monitoring and Management
  • Attack detection and analysis

-detecting (high volume) traffic patterns

-investigation of origin of attacks

  • Intrusion detection

-detecting unexpected or illegal packets

intrusion detection system
Intrusion detection system
  • An intrusion detection system (IDS) generally detects unwanted manipulations of computer systems, mainly through the Internet. The manipulations may take the form of attacks by crackers.
  • network intrusion detection system
  • protocol-based intrusion detection system
  • application protocol-based intrusion detection system
  • host-based intrusion detection system
  • hybrid intrusion detection system
protection detection and response
Protection, Detection and Response
  • Real-world security includes prevention, detection, and response.
  • No prevention mechanism is perfect.
  • Detection and response are not only more cost effective but also more effective than piling on more prevention.
our problem
Our problem
  • The three parts of network security is comparably isolated from each other.
  • Can there be a closer combination of them?
  • A dynamic scheme between detection and prevention
slide21
detection: NIDS based on pattern recognition, neutral networks, Honeypots.
  • prevention: Filters
  • Reponse: traceback.
our idea
Our idea
  • An alert-level system.
  • Example: As results from NIDS became more similar to some attack pattern, the alert level of the networks will gradually increase, prevention will be strengthen.