Autocross School, 2006 Grenada, MS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. 0.7g 0.7g DNF Autocross School, 2006Grenada, MS By James Lee, Lance Coley, Matthew Anderson, Teddy Gibson Special thanks to: Roger H. Johnson and Trey Walker

  2. Volunteer Organization • All events are run by volunteers • In order to compete, you must “work” the course • More co-operation means a smoother running event

  3. Working the course • Obtain work assignments from chief of workers • Report to work station on time • Station will have some extra cones, fire extinguisher, red flag and radio • One person holds both the radio and the red flag • Everyone else picks up downed cones • Watch cones and not that beautiful Saleen Mustang that’s driving by • Face cars at all times – never turn your back • Watch out for other workers • If there is an emergency on course, show the red flag and try to get the driver to stop

  4. Working the Course • Each downed cone is a 2 second penalty which will be added to your final time • Person calls in the cone(s) mentioning: • Station number • Car and class • Number of cones

  5. DNF No DNF if any part of the car hits this cone Working the Course NO DNF • 2006 Solo Rule book 7.9.3 • A “DNF”, or a time penalty if so specified in the supplementary regulations, shall be charged for any uncorrected deviation from the course, or for unnecessarily delaying the event. A course deviation shall not be charged if any part of the car hits a marker defining the limits of the course. A DNF is charged only if part of the course is omitted. In returning to the course after an off course excursion, it is acceptable to drive a part of the course a second time. DNF = Did not finish National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 45

  6. Working the course • Penalties • Directional cones do NOT count!!! “National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 44

  7. Working the Course • No Penalty • Directional cones do NOT count!!! “National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 44

  8. Make sure car passes tech inspection Drive quickly and safely Bring out the full potential of the car on a given course Drive car at the limit Choose the optimum racing line Analyze course conditions Driver Responsibility

  9. Tech inspection • Seat belts working • Roll bar for certain classes • Removable tops / panels • Brakes / fluids / pedal • Battery firmly mounted • Fluid leaks • Muffler / exhaust • Loose items removed from car • Front suspension / steering • Throttle return / belts / accessories • Tires / tread / pressure / treadwear • Wheels / hubcaps / lugs • Number / class marked on car • Helmet

  10. Class and Numbers 14SM2 8 in 4 in 1.25 in 0.75 in “National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 30

  11. Class and Numbers “National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 226

  12. Helmet Requirements • Snell foundation standards • Current and two immediately preceding standards (SA, K, M) • Current Standard is 2005, so 95 and 2000 standards are valid • SFI standards • 31.1A, 31.2A, 41.1A, 41.2A “National Solo Rules, 2006 Edition” by Sports Car Club of America, Sports Car Club of America, Topeka, KS, 2006, p. 33

  13. Helmet Requirements

  14. Helmet Requirements http://www.smf.org http://www.motorsportbayern.de/verschiedenes/reglement/slalom-tipps-helme.htm

  15. Brand Tread Wear Indicators U.T.Q.G. Tire size Tires Maximum load/pressure Model

  16. Radial Rim diameter Width 225/50ZR16 92Y Aspect Ratio Speed Rating H ~ 130 mph V ~ 149 mph Z > 149 mph W ~ 168 mph Y ~ 186 mph 225mm 225mm x 50% Tires • Uniform Tire Quality Grading • System (U.T.Q.G.) • Treadwear • 100 ~ 30,000 miles* • 200 ~ 60,000 miles • > 140 ~ Street Tire • < 140 ~ Open Tire • Traction (AA, A, B, C) • Testing on wet surface • Compound not tread design • Temperature (A, B, C) • Ability to dissipate heat • Based on tire’s ability to operate at high speed w/o failure *http://www.hankooktireusa.com

  17. Tire Pressures • If suspension settings cannot be changed or if suspension settings are optimal, adjust tire pressures until tire wear barely touches the TWI markings Tread Wear Indicators (TWI) Tread wear

  18. Contact Patch and Weight Transfer Front Front Front Rest Equal contact patches on all tires Accelerating Weight transferred to rear tires Braking Weight transferred to front tires Front Front Front Right turn Weight transferred to left hand tires Left Turn Weight transferred to right hand tires Brake Turning (Trail-braking) Weight concentrated on the front outside tire

  19. Slip Angles Direction vehicle is traveling Direction tire is pointed Slip angle Race Tire Street Tire

  20. Slip Angles • Slip angle and self aligning torque* (steering centering force) • Sensitive drivers “feel” the steering effort fall off letting him/her know that they are out of the optimum slip angle range Self Aligning Torque *“Drive to win” by Caroll Smith, Carroll Smith Consulting, Inc., Palos Verdes Estates, CA, 1996, p. 2-7

  21. Slip Angles Overdriving/ Drifter Optimum (Genius Level) Novice Advanced Driver/Talented Novice

  22. * “Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p. Neutral Steer • Front tire slip angle the same as rear tire slip angle* • Ideal • 4 wheel drift! • Might feel like a substantial slide to a novice • Satisfaction guaranteed! 5o 5o Front tire slip angle the same as rear tire slip angle

  23. * “Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p. Understeer • Front tire slip angle larger than rear tire slip angle* • Causes • Front tires have less traction than rear tires • Improper car setup • Natural handling characteristic of car (FWD, AWD) • Insufficient weight transfer to the front tires before turning • Entering a turn to fast (Overcooking) • “Remedies” • Unwind wheel • If front tires over optimum slip angle range • If front tires lose rotational speed • Slow down the car gently by lightly letting off the gas pedal or by light left-foot braking • Transfers weight to front tires • Reduces centripetal force • Trail braking • Curse *wont do anything but will make you feel better, look cool* 15o 5o

  24. * “Going Faster!: Mastering the art of race driving: The Skip Barber Racing School” by Carl Lopez; foreword by Danny Sullivan, Bentley Publishers, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p. Oversteer • Rear tire slip angle greater than front tire slip angle* • Causes • Rear tires have less traction than front tires • Improper car setup • Natural handling characteristics of car (RWD) • Excessive trail-braking • Abrupt/jerky steering inputs • Trailing throttle oversteer (TTO) • Power oversteer • “Remedies” • Countersteer • TTO - keep constant throttle or possibly increasing throttle input gradually to transfer weight to the rear • Power oversteer - decrease throttle input to reduce tire slippage • Stop watching dvd’s like “drift society”, “dorifuto tengoku”, “option”, etc. 5o 30o

  25. 0.7g 0.7g Traction circle • Represents the grip capability of a car • Can only use 100% of any one action at a time • Or split duty between two actions • To maximize the use the traction circle, you need to drive smoothly

  26. Corner sequence • Threshold braking zone • Brake turning zone/trail-braking • Constant throttle zone • Gradual increase in acceleration while unwinding wheel • Always use smooth steering inputs and smooth transitions Acceleration Braking Turning

  27. Basic racing lines • The traditional racing line is the widest constant arc through a corner • Maintains momentum throughout corner • Excellent line for low horsepower cars or for large radius corners

  28. Racing line Early Apex Wheee!@#%$#$ • Premature turn-in severely chokes corner exit. • Corner exit speed suffers • May result in an “agricultural excursion”

  29. Racing LinesLate Apex • Gives up a little speed at entry to gain a “longer straightaway” on exit • Ideal for straight-line traction limited cars (ie. high horsepower) or for tighter corners • Safer than early apex

  30. Sacrifice Corners • Line you would take if corner leads to a straight • But you need to place car here if you want to take the next turn with the widest arc

  31. Sacrifice Corners • Cars with lower HP can’t accelerate as fast so they need to maintain as high a speed as possible therefore the “fast line” for them is a little different. Typically they need to maintain a higher average speed. • The sacrificial line taken by a high HP car if the second turn leads into a significantly long straight Miata Miata Miata

  32. Advanced TechniquesTrail-braking/Heel and Toe/Left foot braking • Trail-Braking • Instead of completing braking before turn-in, braking is initiated slightly later and continued through turn-in to take advantage of the traction circle • Once turn-in begins, braking must be decreased to prevent wheel lock-up • Can be used to help rotate car at turn-in • Left Foot Braking • Can be used in conjunction with trail-braking • Allows better mid-corner balancing of car’s steady-state attitude • Allows quicker transition from brakes to gas after turn-in • Normally only done when a downshift is not required to take the corner • Excellent autocross technique, but some great drivers don’t use it • Heel/Toe Downshift • Utilized when a downshift is required in the braking zone • Match revs without lifting off brakes, maintaining control of cars attitude. • Rarely needed on an autocross course These techniques smoothes out braking-turning/acceleration-braking transitions

  33. Seating Position • Seat should be upright to slightly reclined. • Arms should have slight bend at elbow so that the steering wheel can be turned about 180 degrees without completely straightening arms • Hands should not hit legs at severe steering angles • Always use both hands to control the steering wheel • Legs should be slightly bent at the knee

  34. Course Walking • Objective • Familiarize yourself with general course lay-out • Identify key cones • Define driving lines • Find places to gain an “edge” on competition • Course should be walked twice at a minimum • Once with experienced person or group to discuss lines • Again by yourself to define your own line and memorize course. • Should have a good enough visual image of course to “mind drive” it

  35. Locating Key Cones Key Cone • Locate “key cones” • Key cones dictate the racing line • Choose line based on car, key cones and how wide the gates are • Wider gates allow for sloppier lines which are not necessarily faster Key Cone Key Cone Key Cone Key Cone Diagram Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  36. The wall at the 180º will tend to make an unwary competitor square the corner out. The driver who looks carefully will round the corner out and use the lack of wall to their advantage Competitors that don't "read" the course tend to drive cone to cone. The indicated cone will tend to pull in a driver who has not thought this one out. The fast line is to stay wide to make a sweeping turn. The Brainer The Brainer which will cause cursing here! If followed, the visual straight will cause a lot of dramatic tire screeching at this point, followed by continual cursing over here these cones tend to pull you in note lack of wall here Choosing a Line – Recognizing Visual Deceptions Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  37. Version A; Basic 240 foot 5 cone slalom Version B; same maneuver, visually different Version C; same maneuver, visually different Version D; same maneuver, visually different Slaloms Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  38. example 2 example 1 example 3 Slaloms Examples slaloms in “disguise” • Recognize certain course features as slaloms • Focus on key cones when walking/driving the course Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  39. SlalomsPacing Slalom cone distances Slalom cone distances may vary. Therefore it’s a good practice to always pace them Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  40. Version "B" Version "B" Overlap will make a maneuver more difficult Slowing things Slowing things down down With an increasing overlap, you will be forced to slower through the slalom. A small increase here will also have a surprisingly large effect Slaloms The Gap will make a tight maneuver faster Version "A" Speeding things up With an increasing gap, you will be able to drive faster through the slalom. A small increase (e.g. one foot) will have a surprisingly large effect Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  41. The placement of the entry and exit gates will increase/decrease the severity of a slalom. You should know how many turns are required so that you can return the throttle appropriately. Slaloms Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  42. Other Visual Deceptions Look painful - but are not Truly Painful solutions keeping the same flavor as the original Narrow, walled in sharp turns these areas cause the All can be driven as one flowing turn… maneuver to be painful The problem associated with this narrow walled in turn is that the placement of the wall forces the turn to be made up of 2 or more painful turns instead of a flowing turn 30' gates 18' gates Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  43. Looking Ahead • When you are here • You need to be spotting this key cone • When you are here • You need to be looking at this key cone • When you are here • You need to be looking there Diagrams Courtesy of Roger Johnson of the Houston Region SCCA

  44. Revolving magical gates Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005 Watch these cones Racing Line

  45. Revolving magical gates Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005 Now they look like a slalom

  46. Revolving magical gates Walnut Ridge, AR, National Tour 2005 But wait, If you take the correct line, they open up into a short straight!