Human Relations in Islam Dr. Ishaq Zahid March 08, 2009 Unitarian Church
Outline • Preamble • The Prophet (pbuh) with Jews and Christians • Selections from Quran and Hadith • * Our World Today! • Concluding Remarks • Q/A
American Muslims • 6 million (The New York Times, Feb. 21, 1989) • About 40% Afro-American • Not all Muslims are Arabs, Not all Arabs are Muslims
The Message of the Prophets • There is no god, but God. (Allah is the Arabic name for God) • Worship and obey God as taught by His Messengers • …and that is Islam!
One Nation Under God “Mankind was one single nation, and God sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. God by His Grace Guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed. For God guided whom He will to a path that is straight.” (The Quran, 2:213 )
Abraham’s Prayer, God’s Response • And remember Abraham said: "My Lord, make this (Mecca) a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits,-such of them as believe in God and the Last Day." • He (God) said: "(Yea), and such as reject Faith,-for a while will I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of Fire,- an evil destination (indeed)!" (Quran, 2.126)
No Compulsion in Religion • Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things. (Quran, 2.256)
Respect for others’ beliefs Islam forbids its followers (Muslims) to insult anything that is viewed as a deity by any religion, regardless of what that is.
Safeguarding Houses of Worship 022.039 To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful for their aid;- 022.040 (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is God". Did not God check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily God is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
The Prophet and a Christian King • King Negus of Ethopia gives Protection to migrated Muslims • First Muslim-Christian Governmental Interaction
The Prophet & the Jews of Madinah • A miraculous escape of the Prophet from a murder plot and migration to Madinah. A great event in the history of Islam. • He signs a peace treaty with the Jews of Madinah
The Jews of Bani ‘Awf are one community with the believers. The Jews will profess their religion, and the Muslims theirs. • The Jews shall be responsible for their expenditure, and the Muslims for theirs. • If attacked by a third party, each shall come to the assistance of the other. • Each party shall hold counsel with the other. Mutual relation shall be founded on righteousness; sin is totally excluded. • Neither shall commit sins to the prejudice of the other. • The wronged party shall be aided.
The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers. • Madinah shall remain sacred and inviolable for all that join this treaty. • Should any disagreement arise between the signatories to this treaty, then Allâh, the All-High and His Messenger shall settle the dispute. • The signatories to this treaty shall boycott Quraish commercially; they shall also abstain from extending any support to them. • Each shall contribute to defending Madinah, in case of a foreign attack, in its respective area. • This treaty shall not hinder either party from seeking lawful revenge.
The Prophet and the Monks • The Prophet sent a message to the monks of Saint Catherine in Mount Sinai: • "This is a message written by Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, far and near, we are behind them. • Verily, I defend them by myself, the servants, the helpers, and my followers, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them. No compulsion is to be on them.
… Letter for the Monks • No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims' houses. Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God's covenant and disobey His Prophet. • Verily, they (Christians) are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate. • If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, this is not to take place without her own wish. She is not to be prevented from going to her church to pray. • No one of the nation is to disobey this covenant till the Day of Judgment and the end of the world."
The Prophet and the Christians of Najran A Christian delegation from the city of Najran, South Arabia, came to visit the Prophet in Madinah. During the visit, the Christians prayed in the Mosque of the Prophet, the second holiest mosque of Islam!
Selections From Quran and Hadith • The Holy Quran contains 23 Years of Revelations (610 - 632 C.E.) • Original intact as given by the Prophet in Arabic • 114 Chapters: Most Chapters contain Multiple Revelations • Chapter names are based on a word in the Chapter • Historic Context matters: Quran was a living, dynamic, in-time guidance for the Prophet and his community. • Basic principles are clear. • Others should be understood in the light of Hadith and the 23 years of History
Sunnah and Hadith • Approvals, disapprovals of the Prophet • Compiled in separate books, known as Hadith books, after the death of the Prophet • Classified from authentic to false.
Respect For Parents The Qur'an elevates kindness to parents (especially mothers) to a status second only to the worship of Allah. “Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor.” (Qur'an 17:23)
Human Equality in Islam Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay."
Justice in Islam "Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." (Quran 5:2) "And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness." (Quran 5:8)
Be Just, even if … Oh you who believe, stand up firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor; for God can best protect both. Do not follow any passion, lest you not be just. And if you distort or decline to do justice, verily God is well-acquainted with all that you do.’” (Quran 4:135)
Repel Evil with Goodness • 041.034 Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! • 003.134 Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for God loves those who do good.
Suicide is a Grave Sin O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily God has been to you Most Merciful! (Quran, 4:29)
One=All …if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people….(Quran, 5.32)
Quran: Verse 8:12 Often misinterpreted Verse by Islam bashers: Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): "I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instill terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them." (The Quran, 8.12) Read for an explanation: http://www.islam101.com/terror/verse8_12.htm
Quran: Verse 8:61, … 008.061 But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that hears and knows (all things). 060.008 God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loves those who are just. 060.009 God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong.
A Few Sayings of the Prophet • “The Muslim is that one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.” • And said: • “None amongst you believes (truly) till one likes for his brother that which he loves for himself.” • And said: • “He will not enter Paradise, he whose neighbor is not secure from his wrongful conduct.”
“He who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him be kind to his neighbor; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him show hospitality to his guest; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him either speak good or remain silent". (Hadith) And said: • “He is not a perfect believer, who goes to bed full and knows that his neighbor is hungry.”
And said: • “To remove something harmful from the road, is charity.” • And said: • “Charity erases sins just as water extinguishes fire.”
And said: • “Show mercy to people on earth so that Allâh will have mercy on you in heaven.” • And said: • “Try to avert fire even by half a date (in charity) if not by tendering a good word.”
A Word on Terrorism • There are no ISLAMIC TERRORISTS! (There are a few among a billion Muslims who are terrorists.) • Using “Islam” or “Islamic” associates evil acts to the teachings of Islam. And that is WRONG! • Let us STOP associating Islam with evil.
Speak Good or Be Quiet • The Prophet said: “…He who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him either speak good or remain silent".
see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil • Shutdown on bad media, …, Radio Talk Shows,…?
Questions and Answers Surah Al-Fatehah (Chapter 1: The Opening) 1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; 3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful; 4. Master of the Day of Judgment. 5. Thee do we worship, and Thine help we seek. 6. Show us the straight way, 7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.