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Discussion Questions. Chapter 16. Part I. Question 1. Before Hutton, it was widely assumed that the features of the Earth's surface were: A. always there B. formed by a single, catastrophic event C. underwent gradual change over time D. A and B. Question 2.

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question 1
Question 1
  • Before Hutton, it was widely assumed that the features of the Earth's surface were:
  • A. always there
  • B. formed by a single, catastrophic event
  • C. underwent gradual change over time
  • D. A and B
question 2
Question 2
  • Hutton observed that rocks, rock structures and features of the earth are all related. This relationship is called:
  • A. history
  • B. principle of uniformity
  • C. principles of geology
  • D. philosophy
question 3
Question 3
  • The principle of uniformity has a basic frame of reference. This frame of reference is
  • A. plate tectonics.
  • B. continental drift.
  • C. changes and deformations of rocks today and in the past.
  • D. compressive strain.
question 4
Question 4
  • You observe a hill that has been cut-through by a road. The rock layers display a curving shape. What has likely happened to the rock mass?
  • A. normal faulting
  • B. reverse faulting
  • C. folding
  • D. vulcanism
question 5
Question 5
  • How a rock responds to stress and strain does NOT depend on
  • A. nature of the rock.
  • B. temperature of the rock.
  • C. pressure on the rock.
  • D. mass of the rock.
question 6
Question 6
  • In an anticline, the youngest rocks are found:
  • A. at the top of the fold
  • B. in the middle of the fold
  • C. along the stress fracture
  • D. at the bottom of the fold
question 7
Question 7
  • Rocks near or on the surface are NOT
  • A. cooler than those below the surface.
  • B. hotter that those below the surface.
  • C. are less brittle.
  • D. are under more pressure.
question 8
Question 8
  • The San Andreas fault is a good example of a
  • A. normal fault.
  • B. reverse fault.
  • C. thrust fault.
  • D. none of these.
question 9
Question 9
  • Which is NOT a type of fault?
  • A. normal
  • B. reverse
  • C. thrust
  • D. forward
question 10
Question 10
  • The epicenter is located by
  • A. measuring how long the earthquake lasts.
  • B. measuring the time difference between P and S waves.
  • C. using time data from several seismographs to triangulate the location.
  • D. B and C.
question 11
Question 11
  • During an earthquake, you should NOT
  • A. run outdoors if you are indoors.
  • B. stop your car.
  • C. move away from power lines.
  • D. move away from windows.
question 12
Question 12
  • An earthquake is
  • A. the result of the sudden release of energy that comes from stress on rock.
  • B. ground displacement and motion.
  • C. the cause of tsunamis.
  • D. all of the above.
question 13
Question 13
  • The Black Hills in South Dakota and the Adirondack Mountains in New York are
  • A. arched mountains.
  • B. domed mountains.
  • C. volcanic mountains.
  • D. compressed mountains.
question 14
Question 14
  • The Appalachian Mountains were formed when
  • A. North American split from South America.
  • B. North America collided with Europe and Africa.
  • C. North America collided with South America.
  • D. North America split from Europe and Africa.
question 15
Question 15
  • Mountains that were formed as a result of volcanic eruptions are
  • A. Alps.
  • B. Cascades.
  • C. Rockies.
  • D. Appalachians.
question 16
Question 16
  • The source of magma for Mount St. Helens volcano is
  • A. Cascade Mountains.
  • B. subduction of the continental lithosphere under the Juan de Fuca plate.
  • C. subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate under the continental lithosphere.
  • D. continental lithosphere to Juan de Fuca plate divergence.
question 17
Question 17
  • In which region of the USA, would one expect to find prominent folded mountains?
  • A. Pacific Northwestern, as in Oregon
  • B. Eastern, as in Pennsylvania
  • C. Midwestern, as in Iowa
  • D. Southern, as in Alabama
question 18
Question 18
  • Crushing of rock at a quarry to make smaller sized gravel is an example of
  • A. physical weathering.
  • B. chemical weathering.
  • C. mechanical weathering.
  • D. reduction weathering.
question 19
Question 19
  • Fragments of rocks fall into a mountain stream and are carried into the valley. This is an example of
  • A. weathering.
  • B. erosion.
  • C. mass movement.
  • D. B and C
question 20
Question 20
  • Tree roots grow and expand, and eventually break though a sidewalk. This is an example of:
  • A. corrosion.
  • B. erosion.
  • C. wedging.
  • D. disintegration.
question 124
Question 1
  • The premise that the present is key to understanding the past is called:
  • A. history
  • B. principle of uniformity
  • C. principles of geology
  • D. philosophy
question 225
Question 2
  • The process of deformation that changes the earth's surface is called
  • A. continental drift.
  • B. plate tectonics.
  • C. diastrophism.
  • D. volcanism.
question 326
Question 3
  • Diastrophism, the process of deformation that changes the earth's surface is responsible for
  • A. plateaus.
  • B. mountains.
  • C. both A and B.
  • D. none of the above.
question 427
Question 4
  • A force that compresses, pulls apart or deforms a rock is called
  • A. stress.
  • B. strain.
  • C. pressure.
  • D. tension.
question 528
Question 5
  • The force that does NOT cause rock stress is:
  • A. compressive
  • B. tensional
  • C. shear
  • D. transform
question 629
Question 6
  • Rock stress caused by two plates moving together is
  • A. compressive stress.
  • B. tensional stress.
  • C. shear stress.
  • D. transform stress.
question 730
Question 7
  • Adjustment to stress is defined as
  • A. release.
  • B. strain.
  • C. pressure.
  • D. relief.
question 831
Question 8
  • Rocks at great depths are under
  • A. lower temperature and higher pressure.
  • B. higher temperature and higher pressure.
  • C. higher temperature and lower pressure.
  • D. lower temperature and lower pressure.
question 932
Question 9
  • A bend in layered bedrock which resulted from stress is called
  • A. fracture.
  • B. fold.
  • C. fault.
  • D. twist.
question 1033
Question 10
  • Folds that resemble an arch are called
  • A. inverted basins.
  • B. clines.
  • C. anticlines.
  • D. synclines.
question 1134
Question 11
  • A fold that forms a trough is called
  • A. syncline.
  • B. basin.
  • C. inverted arch.
  • D. semicline.
question 1235
Question 12
  • Movement between rocks on one side of a fracture relative to the rocks on the other side of the fracture is called a
  • A. fracture.
  • B. transformation.
  • C. fault.
  • D. displacement.
question 1336
Question 13
  • The actual place where seismic waves originate is called the _________ of the earthquake.
  • A. epicenter
  • B. focus
  • C. root
  • D. source
question 1437
Question 14
  • The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake is called the
  • A. fault line.
  • B. epicenter.
  • C. source.
  • D. quake starting point.
question 1538
Question 15
  • An earthquake that occurs in the upper part of the mantle is called
  • A. shallow focus.
  • B. deep focus.
  • C. lithosphere focus.
  • D. intermediate focus.
question 1639
Question 16
  • The size of an earthquake is measured by
  • A. how many buildings are damaged.
  • B. amount of energy released at the focus.
  • C. the height of the tsunami it generated.
  • D. time of the earthquake.
question 1740
Question 17
  • The energy of the vibrations or the magnitude of an earthquake is reported using the
  • A. seismograph scale.
  • B. Richter scale.
  • C. magnitude scale.
  • D. Mercalli Scale.
question 1841
Question 18
  • Earthquakes are detected and measured by a
  • A. seismometer.
  • B. Geiger counter.
  • C. Doppler radar.
  • D. oil well monitors.
question 1942
Question 19
  • Elevated parts of the Earth's crust that rise above the surrounding surface are called:
  • A. ridges
  • B. hills
  • C. plateaus
  • D. mountains
question 2043
Question 20
  • Which of the following is NOT a classification of mountain origin?
  • A. folding
  • B. faulting
  • C. parallel
  • D. volcanic
answers for part i
Answers for Part I

1. D 2. B 3. C 4. C

5. D 6. A 7. B 8. D

9. D 10. D 11. A 12. D

13. B 14. B 15. B 16. C

17. B 18. C 19. C 20. C

answers for part ii
Answers for Part II

1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A

5. D 6. A 7. B 8. B

9. B 10. C 11. A 12. C

13. B 14. B 15. D 16. B

17. B 18. A 19. D 20. C