Lesson 1 Define “land conservation”
? Draft Cultural Model Diagram People in the communities surrounding protected areas may not understand the words “land conservation” in the same terms. Their diverse life experiences have shaped their views. People talked about all 5 aspects illustrated in this diagram.
Land conservation is… • Values: how we relate to land • Use: what we get from land • Tools: ways to shape landscapes (Paolisso et al. in prep)
Lesson 2 Define “cultural lenses”
What is a cultural “lens”? • “a metaphor for a point of view” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lens) • “If you are talking from your point of view, you would talk about what you want, need or feel like. To get a person to do something, it is much better to talk from the other person's point of view.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_%28cognitive%29) • “In conflict resolution a technique of using "I", "me", "my" language encourages the person to talk from their own point of view… Talking about your own point of view brings it upon the other person to be more understanding and cooperative. “(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_%28cognitive%29)
Examples: diverse viewpoints on “conservation” • saving a way of life, based on using what nature provides, …to see wildlife and experience nature … “as during my youth” • a dynamic, adaptive process of sustainable harvest to meet human food and material needs. ..”if the land can produce, it should produce” • the equitable management of resources in the public trust, “consider multiple use, agency mandates, and voters” • a moral imperative for the long-term protection of public goods (air, water, nature) …”humans do not have the right to destroy it”
“Pat’s lens” • “My job is to maintain the integrity of the business while recognizing the facts of life. There are going to be new highways, new subdivisions, new businesses, new shopping centers…there is no escaping having to sell property.” • “ You know, [this is] destroying my backyard… destroying my childhood.” • “I really almost weep when I think about the woods that I loved as a kid, as to what they are today and what has happened. I know it is changing and I doubt if it can ever change back. When I was a kid, I roamed this woods and hunted them. There were beautiful big trees everywhere and not a whole lot of underbrush. “
“Chris’s lens” • “ you plant, and you manage and you harvest that timber and provide a good for the public……You are helping to create jobs and you are helping people….you are providing a service and products that people use everyday….” • “You’ve got to get in there and you’ve got to cut, you’ve got to manage with fire, you’ve got to bring up that new forest underneath the old one.” • “I would be hard pressed to tell you right now that I would be willing to tie up something in a conservation project that could be utilized in the future – to take it out of somebody’s hand that could be utilizing it in the future for that community. Not to benefit necessarily an individual, but the community.”
“Lynn’s lens” • “So, the citizens of Beaumont benefit by having clean water in the Neches River … they don’t necessarily see direct benefit to individuals, but it is a societal benefit.., what we call ecosystem services. “ • “Well, our goal is to protect the natural vegetation and, and to do that you have to make sure that the conditions that result in that vegetation …continue,... in Long Leaf pine uplands it’s fire. In big river floodplains, like the Neches,… it’s flooding.” • “for a land owner that’s got a small tract being managed for multiple uses, certainly there’s nothing wrong with removing some trees, let’s say for firewood, while retaining most of the other trees ... There would still be considerable land conservation benefits”
“Kim’s lens” • “Whether it’s a human disturbance or a natural disturbance, it will regenerate itself and it may not be the forest I prefer, but it’s the one that nature rolled the dice and said, ‘that’s what’s coming up’.” • “So there are… a lot of people who appreciate nature. They benefit a great deal, directly, personally, from protection of land… we all have a stake in protecting biodiversity… many people would not understand … what they gain personally from it, but each of us does.” • “We have a moral imperative to protect nature…”
What do we mean by a “cultural lens”? • People expressed diverse views about the ideas in each box of our diagram, as if they wear different lenses that “color” their views • To reflect this diversity, we worded survey items in terms that people used frequently. • We analyzed the survey results to discover the distinctive differences between “lenses” (e.g. factor analysis- oblique). • People who agreed with one survey item, were likely to agree with other items in the same “lens”.
Part 3 Three lenses: views of conservation lands
Amber lens- tools • Land conservation could be integrated into growth and development if political, social, and economic systems worked the way they were supposed to. • development should occur in areas designated for growth. • conserve ecologically unique or special areas. • prioritize land that is threatened by development. • stem unwanted growth. • Successful land conservation efforts cannot be accomplished unless all interested stakeholder groups are able to play an active role & participate in the decision-making process. • local governments are integral to success • build trust and good working relationships with stakeholders
Amber lens- use of land • Conserving land helps to maintain healthy ecosystems. • sustain native plants and local wildlife. • environmental benefits such as clean air and water. • Land conservation is about using resources wisely so that they will be available to meet the varying future needs of diverse landowners & communities. • preserve rural identity and character. • preserve the continuity of local communities. • maintain quality of life. • preserve a landowner’s equity and open spaces for environmental purposes. • provide income from food, fiber, and timber production.
Amber lens- values • It is a moral imperative to conserve land. • We do not have the right to negatively impact other species. • Some land needs to be conserved where nature can be allowed to flourish with little or no contact from humans. • Land conservation should be integrated into growth and development. • Land conservation should preserve working lands (i.e., lands used to produce grain, livestock, timber, etc.) and open spaces. • It is important to conserve lands for recreation. • We should conserve lands that most people would agree are beautiful, uplifting, or unique.
Rosy lens- tools • The profitable production of natural resources (food, fiber, timber) is the best way to conserve land. • Without active management, nature cannot live up to its potential. • More land could be conserved if land conservation programs did not require land to be preserved in perpetuity. • Land conservation may be a tool to preserve agricultural land but it is not a mechanism to make agriculture sufficiently viable so that farmers can continue to work the land.
Rosy lens- use of land • Land is an economic resource, like other financial assets, that can be used to meet the short- and long-term financial needs of its owners. • The purpose of land conservation is to maintain the land’s ability to provide a secure livelihood for communities now and in the future. • Land is a source of income in times of family crisis.
Rosy lens- values • If land conservation efforts are to be successful, voluntary approaches should be pursued over regulatory ones. • Land use decisions should be primarily governed by landowners. • Conservation at all costs is unreasonable. Some costs cannot be tolerated. • Natural resource producers of food, fiber, and timber are the best land conservationists. • Land conservation may limit a landowner’s ability to use his/her land in a way that is necessary to meet his/her short- and long-term needs.
Rosy lens- values (cont’d) • Humans are the dominant species and meeting our needs should be a priority. • Mother Nature is pretty tough and if we let her alone, she will come back even after disturbances such as clear cutting, over grazing, or hurricanes. • Development can be a net positive for the environment, if planning is adequate and appropriate technologies are used.
Green lens I DISAGREE THAT.. • Land is a resource to allow communities to grow to meet economic and housing needs. • Conservation is managing land for its highest and best use and that can change according to economic and social needs. • More land would be preserved through profitable farming than through the purchase and donation of land conservation easements.
Continuum of views O the size of each dot equals the number of people surveyed, with each particular combination of scores, (considering all 3 lenses)
Part 4 Different viewpoints: through different lenses
Interfaces between lenses rosy meetsamber amber meets green green meets rosy
green meets rosy • Land conservation may be a tool to preserve agricultural land but it is not a mechanism to make agriculture sufficiently viable so that farmers can continue to work the land. • Land is a source of income in times of family crisis. • More land could be conserved if land conservation programs did not require land to be preserved in perpetuity. • Humans are the dominant species and meeting our needs should be a priority. Likely to AGREE green DISAGREES
amber meets green • Land is finite and damage to it can be irreversible, therefore we must protect it from overuse and abuse. • Land conservation helps preserve a "sense of place.“ • Land conservation efforts should prioritize land that is threatened by development. • The purpose of conserving some lands is to provide income from food, fiber, and timber production. • Land conservation efforts should prioritize activities that help people make a living off of the land. • Wise use of land requires us to balance human needs and nature's needs. Likely to AGREE green DISAGREES
rosy meets amber • Land conservation limits land values. • We do not have the right to negatively impact other species. amber DISAGREES rosy DISAGREES
PART 1. Summary • Define • Land conservation model components: vision, threat, values, use, tools • Cultural lens: viewpoint shared by a group • Give examples of diverse lenses • Amber, rosy, green • Reflect on friction when different viewpoints meet