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Supported in part by a USDA-CSREES grant entitled “Improving Safety of Complex Food Items using Electron Beam Technology.” Lesson1 IntroductionMicrobiological Safety of Fresh Fruits & Vegetables Lesson 1 of 4 Authors: Dr. Tom A. Vestal & Dr. Frank J. Dainello:Texas AgriLife Extension Service Mr. Jeff Lucas: Texas A&M University These slides contain notes which augment the actual slide presentation. You may view the notes by clicking on the “normal view” icon in the lower left-hand corner of your screen, or by selecting “Normal” in the “View” dropdown box from your toolbar’s menu.
Objectives Lesson1 • Consumption patterns and the increase in foodborne disease from produce. • Define foodborne disease. • Describe foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication. • Identify causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. • Identify agents of foodborne disease. www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Per capita (lb) consumption of raw fruits & vegetables in the U.S. (USDA 1999). Lesson1 FDA, Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce, Table lV-2., 2001. www.tamu.edu/ebeam Reminder: To view the notes, from the toolbar click “View” then from the dropdown box which appears click “Normal”.
Average Servings Consumed Lesson1 Year Fruit Vegetables 1989-1991 1.3 3.2 1994-1996 1.5 3.4 U.S. GAS, Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced Federal Efforts to Increased Consumption. 2002 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Average Servings Consumed Lesson1 1994 1996 1998 2000 Total Servings Fruit & Vegetables 3.44 3.43 3.38 3.37 Total Servings Vegetables 2.06 2.05 2.02 2.02 Total Servings Fruits 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.00 U.S. GAS, Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced Federal Efforts to Increased Consumption. 2002 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Lesson1 Increased Consumption of Fresh Produce and the Occurrence of Foodborne Disease “During the last three decades, the number of outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens associated with fresh produce consumption reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has increased.” Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Protection., Vol 67, No. 10, 2004, pp 2342-2353 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
1973 – 1997 Produce-associated foodborne illness data… Lesson1 Produce-Associated Foodborne Illness Data Produce as a % of all outbreaks • 0.7% in the 1970s • 12% in the 1990s Produce of greatest risk… • Salad • Lettuce • Juice • Melon • Sprouts • Berries Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Protection., Vol 67, No. 10, 2004, pp 2342-2353 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Factors Affecting an Increase in Foodborne Illness Related to Fresh Fruits & Vegetables. Shipments from centralized locations. Distributions over a wider geographical area. Increased global trade. Lesson1 • Increased consumption of raw fruits & vegetables. • Greater consumption of foods not prepared in the home. • Increase in popularity of salad bars (buffets). • Greater volumes of both intact and prepared fruits & vegetables. FDA, Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce, 2001 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Foodborne Disease Sometimes referred to as food poisoning. Lesson1 An illness contracted through the consumption of contaminated food stuffs containing agent(s) that cause an adverse health reaction. www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Growing Hazards Lesson1 • Soil borne microbes • Contaminated soil or irrigation water • Wildlife and bird feces • Improperly composted manures www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Lesson1 Harvesting Hazards • Poor personal hygiene • Human contamination (lack of or inadequate toilet and hand washing facilities) • Unclean harvesting containers and equipment • Metal and lubricant contamination from harvesting equipment www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Processing Hazards Lesson1 • Cross contamination of microbes • Appropriate temperature • Metal and lubricant contamination from processing equipment • Human contamination • Failure to adequately clean and sanitize processing equipment at proper intervals • Use of unapproved and/or non-potable water supply • Proper pest and animal control practices and equipment • Not using sanitized storage, processing, and shipping containers www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Lesson1 Storage and Distribution Hazards • Temperature conducive to microbe population growth • Transportation equipment contaminated by previous cargo • Incidental lapses in pest and animal control effectiveness www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Preparation Hazards Lesson1 • Kitchen surface contamination • Improper washing of hands and produce • Utensil cross contamination • Lack of proper temperature control • Contamination from other meal items such as raw meat • Improper cooking www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Foodborne Infection Lesson1 A foodborne disease caused by the consumption of contaminated foods containing live microorganisms or the spores of those microorganisms. Growth and multiplication of the microbes or spores must occur in order to cause disease. Most bacterial pathogens double in population every 20 minutes. www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Foodborne Intoxication Lesson1 A foodborne disease caused by the consumption of contaminated foods containing a chemical agent or toxin as a by-product of microbial growth. Consumption of live microorganisms is not required. An example of an intoxicant is Clostridium botulium, found in soil, affects the nervous system and has been found in improperly processed canned foods, potatoes, olives, spinach, garlic, mushrooms, beets, asparagus, peppers, beans, and eggplant. www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Agents of Foodborne Disease Lesson1 • Bacterial • Viral • Parasitic • Chemical www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Examples of Microbiological Agents (Pathogens) of Foodborne Disease Lesson1 Listeria monocytogenesBacterial Salmonella Escherichia coil 0157:H7 Shigella spp. Clostridium botulinum Hepatitis A Viral noroviruses Giardia Parasitic Cyclospora Cryptosporidium Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Industry 4th Ed, IFPA., 2001., P. 17 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Symptoms of DiseaseFoodborne Disease of Bacterial Origin Lesson1 www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Pathogens & Spoilage Organisms Lesson1 • Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause disease. • Spoilage Organisms: Microorganisms that through growth render food stuffs unsuitable for consumption due to changes in odor, flavor, color consistencies or visible presence. Disease: www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Common Spoilage Organisms Lesson1 www.tamu.edu/ebeam Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Industry 4th Ed, IFPA., 2001., P. 17
References Lesson1 • International Fresh-cut Produce Association. 2001. Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Association. 4th. Edition. • Serdula M, Gillespie C, Kettel-Khan L, Farris R, Seymour J, Denny C. Trends in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1994-2000. American Journal of Public Health. June 2004. Vol 94, No 6. • Silliker, Inc. 2003. Principles of Food Microbiology Short Course. Huntington Beach, CA. March, 2003. • Sivapalasingam S, Friedman C, Cohen L, Tauxe R. Fresh Produce: A Growing Cause of Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. Journal of Food Protection. 2004. Vol 67. No 10. Pp. 2342-2353. • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. CFSAN. 2001. Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Washington, D.C. • U.S. General Accounting Office. 2002. Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced Federal Efforts to Increase Consumption Could Yield Health Benefits for Americans. General Accounting Office (GAO), Washington, D.C. www.tamu.edu/ebeam
Module 1 www.tamu.edu/ebeam