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Supported in part by a USDA-CSREES grant entitled “Improving Safety of Complex Food Items using Electron Beam Technology.” Lesson 1 Introduction Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruits & Vegetables Lesson 1 of 4 Authors:

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slide1
Supported in part by a USDA-CSREES grant entitled “Improving Safety of Complex Food Items using Electron Beam Technology.”

Lesson1

IntroductionMicrobiological Safety of Fresh Fruits & Vegetables

Lesson 1 of 4

Authors:

Dr. Tom A. Vestal & Dr. Frank J. Dainello:Texas AgriLife Extension Service

Mr. Jeff Lucas: Texas A&M University

These slides contain notes which augment the actual slide presentation. You may view the notes by clicking on the “normal view” icon in the lower left-hand corner of your screen, or by selecting “Normal” in the “View” dropdown box from your toolbar’s menu.

objectives
Objectives

Lesson1

  • Consumption patterns and the increase in foodborne disease from produce.
  • Define foodborne disease.
  • Describe foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication.
  • Identify causes of foodborne disease outbreaks.
  • Identify agents of foodborne disease.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

per capita lb consumption of raw fruits vegetables in the u s usda 1999
Per capita (lb) consumption of raw fruits & vegetables in the U.S. (USDA 1999).

Lesson1

FDA, Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce, Table lV-2., 2001.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

Reminder: To view the notes, from the toolbar click “View” then from the dropdown box which appears click “Normal”.

average servings consumed
Average Servings Consumed

Lesson1

Year Fruit Vegetables

1989-1991 1.3 3.2

1994-1996 1.5 3.4

U.S. GAS, Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced

Federal Efforts to Increased Consumption. 2002

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

average servings consumed5
Average Servings Consumed

Lesson1

1994 1996 1998 2000

Total Servings

Fruit & Vegetables

3.44 3.43 3.38 3.37

Total Servings

Vegetables

2.06 2.05 2.02 2.02

Total Servings

Fruits

1.05 1.05 1.04 1.00

U.S. GAS, Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced

Federal Efforts to Increased Consumption. 2002

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

slide6

Lesson1

Increased Consumption of Fresh Produce and the Occurrence of Foodborne Disease

“During the last three decades, the number of

outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens associated

with fresh produce consumption reported to the

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has

increased.”

Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Protection.,

Vol 67, No. 10, 2004, pp 2342-2353

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

1973 1997 produce associated foodborne illness data
1973 – 1997 Produce-associated foodborne illness data…

Lesson1

Produce-Associated Foodborne Illness Data

Produce as a % of all outbreaks

  • 0.7% in the 1970s
  • 12% in the 1990s

Produce of

greatest risk…

  • Salad
  • Lettuce
  • Juice
  • Melon
  • Sprouts
  • Berries

Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Protection.,

Vol 67, No. 10, 2004, pp 2342-2353

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

factors affecting an increase in foodborne illness related to fresh fruits vegetables
Factors Affecting an Increase in Foodborne Illness Related to Fresh Fruits & Vegetables.

Shipments from centralized locations.

Distributions over a wider geographical area.

Increased global trade.

Lesson1

  • Increased consumption of raw fruits & vegetables.
  • Greater consumption of foods not prepared in the home.
  • Increase in popularity of salad bars (buffets).
  • Greater volumes of both intact and prepared fruits & vegetables.

FDA, Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce, 2001

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

foodborne disease sometimes referred to as food poisoning
Foodborne Disease Sometimes referred to as food poisoning.

Lesson1

An illness contracted through the consumption of contaminated food stuffs containing agent(s) that cause an adverse health reaction.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

growing hazards
Growing Hazards

Lesson1

  • Soil borne microbes
  • Contaminated soil or irrigation water
  • Wildlife and bird feces
  • Improperly composted manures

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slide11

Lesson1

Harvesting Hazards

  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Human contamination (lack of or

inadequate toilet and hand washing

facilities)‏

  • Unclean harvesting containers and

equipment

  • Metal and lubricant contamination from harvesting equipment

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processing hazards
Processing Hazards

Lesson1

  • Cross contamination of microbes
  • Appropriate temperature
  • Metal and lubricant contamination from processing equipment
  • Human contamination
  • Failure to adequately clean and sanitize

processing equipment at proper intervals

  • Use of unapproved and/or non-potable

water supply

  • Proper pest and animal control practices and equipment
  • Not using sanitized storage, processing, and shipping containers

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

slide13

Lesson1

Storage and Distribution Hazards

  • Temperature conducive to microbe population growth
  • Transportation equipment contaminated by previous cargo
  • Incidental lapses in pest and

animal control effectiveness

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

preparation hazards
Preparation Hazards

Lesson1

  • Kitchen surface contamination
  • Improper washing of hands and produce
  • Utensil cross contamination
  • Lack of proper temperature control
  • Contamination from other meal

items such as raw meat

  • Improper cooking

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

foodborne infection
Foodborne Infection

Lesson1

A foodborne disease caused by the consumption of contaminated foods containing live microorganisms or

the spores of those microorganisms.

Growth and multiplication of the

microbes or spores must occur in

order to cause disease.

Most bacterial pathogens double in population every 20 minutes.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

foodborne intoxication
Foodborne Intoxication

Lesson1

A foodborne disease caused by the

consumption of contaminated foods

containing a chemical agent or

toxin as a by-product of microbial

growth. Consumption of live

microorganisms is not required.

An example of an intoxicant is

Clostridium botulium, found in soil,

affects the nervous system and has

been found in improperly processed

canned foods, potatoes, olives,

spinach, garlic, mushrooms, beets,

asparagus, peppers, beans, and

eggplant.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

agents of foodborne disease
Agents of Foodborne Disease

Lesson1

  • Bacterial
  • Viral
  • Parasitic
  • Chemical

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

examples of microbiological agents pathogens of foodborne disease
Examples of Microbiological Agents (Pathogens) of Foodborne Disease

Lesson1

Listeria monocytogenesBacterial

Salmonella

Escherichia coil 0157:H7

Shigella spp.

Clostridium botulinum

Hepatitis A Viral

noroviruses

Giardia Parasitic

Cyclospora

Cryptosporidium

Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Industry

4th Ed, IFPA., 2001., P. 17

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

pathogens spoilage organisms
Pathogens & Spoilage Organisms

Lesson1

  • Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause disease.
  • Spoilage Organisms: Microorganisms that through growth render food stuffs unsuitable for consumption due to changes in odor, flavor, color consistencies or visible presence.

Disease:

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common spoilage organisms
Common Spoilage Organisms

Lesson1

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Industry 4th Ed, IFPA., 2001., P. 17

references
References

Lesson1

  • International Fresh-cut Produce Association. 2001. Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-cut Produce Association. 4th. Edition.
  • Serdula M, Gillespie C, Kettel-Khan L, Farris R, Seymour J, Denny C. Trends in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1994-2000. American Journal of Public Health. June 2004. Vol 94, No 6.
  • Silliker, Inc. 2003. Principles of Food Microbiology Short Course. Huntington Beach, CA. March, 2003.
  • Sivapalasingam S, Friedman C, Cohen L, Tauxe R. Fresh Produce: A Growing Cause of Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. Journal of Food Protection. 2004. Vol 67. No 10. Pp. 2342-2353.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. CFSAN. 2001. Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Washington, D.C.
  • U.S. General Accounting Office. 2002. Fruits and Vegetables: Enhanced Federal Efforts to Increase Consumption Could Yield Health Benefits for Americans. General Accounting Office (GAO), Washington, D.C.

www.tamu.edu/ebeam

slide23
Module 1

www.tamu.edu/ebeam