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Chemical engineering products, processes, and challenges. Commodities Molecules Nanostructures Key cost speed to market function Basis unit operations discovery properties. A commodity: TiO 2 (titanium oxide).

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slide1

Chemical engineering products, processes, and challenges

Commodities Molecules Nanostructures

Key cost speed to market function

Basis unit operations discovery properties

slide2

A commodity: TiO2 (titanium oxide)

Extremely white, opaque, edible, dirt resistant. Used in paper, food,

cosmetics, paint, textiles, plastics. World consumption: 4 million tons/yr.

Cost: $2,000/ton. Total world value = $8 billion/yr.

A 1% increase in production efficiency = 0.01*2*103 *4*106 $/yr = $80 million/yr.

slide3

Molecules

Small and simple: ammonia (NH3)

sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

ethylene (C2H4)

sugar (C12H22O11)

Large and complex: insulinC257H383N65O77S6

Large and simple (polymers): polyethylene[-CH2-CH2]n

See www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog for a very

good introduction to polymers.

slide4

Polymers, e.g. polyethylene

is made up of many monomers:

slide5

Copolymers

are made up of two kinds of monomers, say A and B

slide6

SBS rubber (tires, shoe soles)

The polystyrene is tough;

the polybutadiene is rubbery

slide7

Nano applications of polymers

Organized block copolymer of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate)

and PS (polystyrene).

Spin casting in electric field

produces cylinders of PS embedded

in the PMMA which are oriented

in the direction of the electric field

PMMA cylinders are 14nm diameter,

24nm apart.

PS can be dissolved with

acetic acid to leave holes.

Use as a microscopic filter?

slide8

Computer application:

Cylindrical holes are electrochemically

filled with magnetic cobalt. Each cylindrical

hole can then store 1 “bit” of information.

bit/cm = 1 / (2.4*10-7)

bit/cm2 = 1.7*1011

slide9

Genetic engineering: production of synthetic insulin

1) Extract a plasmid (a circular molecule of DNA) from the

bacterium E-coli

2) Break the circle

3) Insert a section of human DNA

containing the insulin-producing

gene

4) Insert this engineered gene

back into the E-coli bacterium

5) The E-coli and its offspring

now produce insulin

slide10

Chemical Engineering

Two strategies for obtaining chemical compounds and materials:

1) Create the desired compound from raw materials

via one or more chemical reactions in a “reactor”

2) Isolate the compound where it exists in combination

with other substances through a “separation process”

slide11

raw materials

energy

energy

catalyst

Reactor

catalyst

product + contaminants

byproducts

Reactors

fermenters in a brewery

pharmaceuticals reactor

slide12

Separations

Based on differences between individual substances:

Boiling point

Freezing point

Density

Volatility

Surface Tension

Viscosity

Molecular Complexity

Size

Geometry

Polarization

slide13

Separations

Based on differences in the presence of other materials

Solubility

Chemical reactivity

slide25

Tb-out

Tb-out

heat loss

Tb-in

Tb-in

exchanger

exchanger

appendage

body

appendage

body

Counter-current heat exchangers

How do they work?

limited

heat exchange

good

heat exchange