CHAPTER 16WORLD WAR LOOMS MR. ALLEN
The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to WW2 Dictators of the 30s and 40s have made world leaders especially watchful for the actions of dictators today SECTION 16.1DICTATORS THREATEN WORLD PEACE
Nationalism – Loyalty to ones country above all else • Fueled territorial expansion and dictator’s rise to power • Totalitarianism – A government that exerts complete control over it’s citizens. Individuals have no rights.
After Lennon died, Stalin took over, attempting to create a modern communist state Transformed Soviet Union from a backward nation to an industrial power Nationalized industries-farms and factories Many estimated that Stalin was responsible for the deaths of 8 to 13 million people Joseph Stalin – “Man of Steel”
Unemployment and inflation sowed chaos in Italy-Mussolini rose to power Fascism – Stressed Nationalism and placed the interest of the state above others “Made the trains run on time” Benito Mussolini – Italian Fascist
The Nazis take over Germany • Adolf Hitler was a powerful public speaker that became the leader of the Nazi party • Born in Austria, he believed in reuniting all German-speaking people of the world • Purification- Germans formed a “master race” that was destined to rule the world.
Hitler Takes Control • In 1933 Hitler ws appointed chancellor and immediately dismantled Germany’s government • Great Depression had some 6 million Germans unemployed, Hitler rose to power vowing to combat this • Fueled by militarism and expansionism, Hitler put people to work
Military leaders were taking over the imperial government of Japan More living space for a growing people Invades Manchuria Militarists Gain Control
Hitler’s actions started WW2 and still serve as a warning to be vigilant about a totalitarian government Appeasement – The giving up principles to pacify an aggressor. CHAPTER 16.2WAR IN EUROPE
AUSTRIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA FALL • To prosper, Hitler told his generals, Germany needed the land of its neighbors • Austria and Czechoslovakia were to be absorbed into the Third Reich • Most Austrians were Germans. Hitler marched in unopposed
Bargaining for the Sudetenland-about 3 million German-Speaking people lived in the Western border of Czechoslovakia. Hitler charges the Czechs with abusing Germans Turn to a partner
WHAT WOULD YOU DO? • Hitler invited the world leaders to discuss the Czech issue. He claimed that there was abuse of Germans, and that this would be his last territorial demand. • You are Britain and you have to choose peace or war. However, you have just barely recovered from WW1. Do you choose to sign the treaty?
“Peace in our Time” • Neville Chamberlin and Daladier chose to believe Hitler and sign the Munich Agreement • Czechoslovakia's vast armaments go to Germany without a fight • German troops pour into CZ,
The Soviet union wants to expand as well • Stalin and Hitler sign a non-aggression pact • Germany declares war on Poland • Blitzkrieg – Made use of advances in military tech to take the enemy by surprise with quick advances.
FRANCE AND BRITAIN DECLARE WAR • FRANCE QUICKLY FALLS, THANKS TO NEW MEANS OF WAR • BATTLE OF BRITAIN BEGINS • CHURCHILL – “We shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be”
During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically executed 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans” Section 16.3 -The Holocaust “Work Makes one Free” – Gates of Auschwitz
How it Started • 1933 Jews denied public jobs and Jewish businesses boycotted • Nuremberg Laws defined Jews by thereligious affiliation of Grandparents • The Kristallnacht “ Night of Broken Glass” November 9, 1938 • Jewish Homes & Businesses attacked and destroyed across Germany
This sign says “Germans! Defend Yourselves! Do not buy from Jews!”
Refugees • Hitler favored immigration out of GR • France accepted 25,000 • British accepted 80,000 • Latin America 40,000 • U.S. 100,000 – The St. Louis • All refused Jews
Hitler’s “Final Solution” • Genocide – The deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population • The Condemned-Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Homosexuals • Forced relocation into Ghettos
Meeting in Berlin on January 20, 1942 to plan the execution of Hitler’s “Final Solution.” • Execution/ concentration camps locatedmainly in Germany & Poland • Camps located near railroad lines • Used cyanide gas as primary murder weapon
CONCENTRATION CAMPS • GERMANS EFFICIENT • LABOR CAMPS • SYSTEMATIC EXTERMINATION • GAS CHAMBERS-Bullets to expensive
THE HOLOCAUST • 6 MILLION JEWS MURDERED • 12,000 killed a day in gas chambers • 11 million lives lost