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Beverage and Wine Service Chapters 7 and 8 “ We drink for pleasure of our company or for taste and tactile sensations of large variety of beverages” CIA p.124 Beverages Water, Milk, Juice Infusions ( Tea and Coffee ) Fermented Beverages (Wine and Beer)

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Beverage and wine service chapters 7 and 8 l.jpg

Beverage and Wine ServiceChapters 7 and 8

“We drink for pleasure of our company or for taste and tactile sensations of large variety of beverages”

CIA p.124

Beverages l.jpg

  • Water, Milk, Juice

  • Infusions (Tea and Coffee)

  • Fermented Beverages (Wine and Beer)

  • Distilled alcohol (whiskey, brandy, other spirits)

  • Cocktails (mixture of distilled alcohol and juice, water,etc.)

Aperitifs l.jpg

  • “Standard” is that aperitif should be offered 30 seconds after guest is seated

  • Aperitif should be:

    • low in alcohol so you do not ruin your tastebuds

    • dry not sweet so you stimulate your appetite

    • chilled to be more refreshing

    • Examples include:

      • White wine, Fortified Wines like dry Sherry, Aromatized Wines like Vermouth or Dubonnet

Common aperitifs l.jpg
Common Aperitifs

  • Fortified Wine

    • Wine mixed with distilled alcohol usually brandy

    • 16 -23 percent alcohol

    • Port, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala

    • Served between 55 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit

  • Aromatized Wine

    • Wine which has alcohol and some type of flavoring added

      • herbs, roots, bark or spices

    • 18 - 20 percent alcohol

  • Popular Aperitif

    • Kir: white wine with crème de cassis

    • Kir Royale: Champagne/Sparkling wine with crème de cassis

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Distilled Spirits

  • Distilled Spirit

    • made by heating a liquid containing alcohol which converts the alcohol to vapor form. Ethyl Alcohol vaporizes at 176 degrees F. The vapor is collected and condensed into raw alcohol then temperature is lowered.

    • 100 percent alcohol is chemically pure and 200 “Proof”

  • Natural Spirits are distilled to minimum of 190 proof, odorless, colorless, and flavorless

Brandy l.jpg

  • Distilled Wine - “brandewijn” or burnt wine

  • Distilled from fruit, usually grapes

  • 80 to 84 proof

  • Types of Brandy

    • Cognac- double distilled from specific area of France called Cognac

    • Armagnac - single distilled from area of France called Armagnac

    • Calvados- apple brandy from Normandy, France

    • Grappa - Italian brandy distilled from pomace of grapes

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  • Distilled from Grain

  • 5 Types of Whiskey

    • American - distilled from “sour mash” which is combination of grains

      • e.g. Bourbon - 51% corn, aged 2 years in new oak barrels, from Bourbon County, KY

    • Canadian - distilled from several grains and blended with rye

    • Irish - distilled barley and corn and blended with rye in Ireland

    • Rye - rye

    • Scotch - malted barley dried over peat fires in Scotland

  • Whiskey served “up” or on the rocks w/ water or soda

  • Cocktails from Whiskey - Manhattan or Whiskey Sour

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  • Unaged, neutral spirit that is flavored with juniper berries or aromatics

  • Types of Gin

    • Dutch/Holland Gin - generally not mixed as cocktail

    • English Gin - 180 proof then diluted to 80 to 97 proof

    • American Gin - Neutral spirit if >190 proof and then diluted to 80 proof before bottling

  • Typical Gin Cocktails - Martinis, Gibsons, Gimlets, or served with tonic and lime

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  • Slavic word for “water”

  • Historically, potatoes are the base of sugar

  • Most vodka today is made from grain

  • Like gin, vodka is not aged

  • Many vodkas are now offered with flavors

    • Pepper

    • Lemon

  • Typical Vodka Cocktails - Martinis, Gibsons, Gimlets, or served with juice – orange (Screwdriver) or tomato (Bloody Mary)

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  • Distilled from fermented juices of sugarcane

  • Distilled to >190 proof then diluted to 80 proof

  • Can be served as high as 151 proof

  • Styles

    • Light - very dry, e.g. Puerto Rican

    • Medium

    • Full Bodied, e.g, Jamaican

  • Typical Rum Cocktails - Cuba libre - coke and lime, Piña Colada, or w/ tonic and lime

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Tequila or Mescal

  • Distilled from agave plant

  • From Tequila, Jalisco, Mexico otherwise called “Mescal”

  • Double distilled to >110 proof then diluted to 80 proof

  • Typical Tequila Cocktails –

    • Straight “Up” or

    • Margarita - Frozen or “On the Rocks”

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Cordials or Liqueurs

  • Alcoholic Beverages flavored with aromatics and sweetened

    • Anise - Ouzo, Pernod, Sambuca

    • Chocolate - Crème de cacao

    • Coffee - Kahlua or Tia Maria

    • Fruit - Crème de Cassis, Triple Sec, Grand Marnier

    • Flowers - Roses or Violets

    • Herbals - Drambuie, Chartreuse

    • Nuts - Frangelico or Amaretto

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Mixed Drinks

  • Server Must Know:

    • Primary Liquor - Brand is important

    • Possible Variations on request, e.g. Gin or Vodka

    • Garnish

    • Glass and Style - ice, no ice, “neat” , “up”, “on the rocks”

    • Popular cocktails - Bloody Mary, Gibson, Martini, Manhattan, Margarita, Gimlet, Vodka/Gin and Tonic

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Mixed Drinks Service Issues

  • “Club Service” - drink mixed in front of guest

  • Jigger - 2 ounces

  • Price and Quality Classifications

    • Well - lower priced, house brand, below bar

    • Call - called by name, e.g. Dewars; higher quality

    • Premium - “top shelf” , highest quality and price

  • Use of cocktail napkin -cloth/no cloth, logo

  • “Show” plate

  • Kiddie cocktails

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Ways to serve aperitifs and distilled spirits and cocktails

  • “Up” - Chilled over ice then strained as poured into glass

  • “On the Rocks” - over ice

  • With a mixer and “twist” - served over ice with soda, water, juice and a twist of lemon or lime

  • “Neat” - Chilled without ice

  • “Perfect” - in a Manhattan when 1/2 of dry vermouth is substituted for sweet

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Taking & Placing Order

  • Be ready with suggestions, repeat the order, take orders from left to right, never substitute without asking

  • Place cocktail napkins, serve from tray

  • Serve refills, empty ashtrays, be attentive.

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  • A positive sales approach or question that avoids an automatic “no” and encourage a “yes” answer

  • Suggest personal favorites;

  • Use brand names;

  • Make sincere suggestions

Increasing wine sales l.jpg
Increasing Wine Sales



Slide19 l.jpg

  • Fermented Grain, Water, Yeast and Hops

  • Grain can be malted barley, wheat, oats, rice, corn, rye

  • “Malted” - steeped in water 2 weeks then dried out – this converts complex carbohydrates to more simple sugar

  • Malted grain is the sugar source for the yeast

  • Roasted grain for color and flavor

  • Hops - for flavor (bitterness), head retention, shelf life

  • Yeast “eats” grain sugar converting it to alcohol and CO2

Slide20 l.jpg

  • Styles

    Type of Yeast determine fermentation style

    • Top fermented - ales, 55 ºF -60 ºF

    • Bottom fermented - lagers, light crisp, effervescent, 48 ºF

    • Fruit Lambic Ales - made with fruit and wild yeast in Belgium

Pouring serving beer l.jpg
Pouring & Serving Beer

  • Concerns: sanitation, glassware selection, temperature, storage and handling procedures

  • Pouring and serving bottled beer: tilt bottle, pour at steep angle into center of glass to create a proper head

  • Pulling a draft: hold glass at angle at tap, allow beer to hit bottom then tilt glass

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“Wine is the alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes, the fermentation taking place in the district of origin according to local tradition and practice”

Fermentation l.jpg

  • A chemical process by which sugar is converted into alcohol

    Natural sugar from Carbon dioxide gas

    the grape pulp given off

    Yeast occurs on the

    skin of the grape


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Types of Wine

  • Table or Still Wines

  • Sparkling Wines - second fermentation

  • Fortified or Aromatized Wines - brandy added

Vintage l.jpg

  • Year the grapes were picked

  • Some years are better

  • Great vintages don’t mean all great wines

  • Champagne and Port - vintages in exceptional years only

  • Vintage is replaced once previous vintage is sold out

  • Each vintage is different

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Wine Labels

  • Wine Vintage -Year the grapes were picked

  • Type of wine or name of wine

  • Region - appellation

  • Producer

  • U.S. requires alcohol content, sparkling or still, warning label

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Wine Tasting

  • Color/Clarity

  • Body - “legs”

  • Aroma - Bouquet

  • Taste - Sweet, Sour, Bitter or Salty

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Wine Storage

  • Dark, well ventilated, and insulated

  • Temperature controlled - constant 55- 60ºF

  • No movement

  • Store horizontally, label up, bin number

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Wine Serving Aids

  • Waiter’s tool, captain’s knife, bar key (church key)

  • “Ah – So”

  • Wine baskets - red wine

  • Wine buckets - lower or maintain temperature

    • 3/4 full - 1 part water to 2 part ice

    • Is this bottle chilled to your liking?

  • Glassware -

    • Saucer shaped sparkling - Marie Antoinette vs. Flute

    • White wine - 1/2 full

    • Red wine 1/3 full

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Wine Information Available for Staff

  • Bin #

  • Phonetic Spelling

  • Year

  • Bottle Size

  • Price

  • Type

  • Origin

  • Serving Temperature

  • Characteristics of wine

  • Food pairing

Food wine l.jpg
Food & Wine

  • Whatever the guest desires

  • Traditional

    • Red wines with red meats

    • White wines with fish or fowl




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Sommelier/Wine Steward

  • Selects wines for wine list;

  • Maintains wine inventory;

  • Responsible for storage, handling, and conditions of wine cellar;

  • Wine consultant to guests

Wine serving temperatures l.jpg
Wine-serving Temperatures

  • White and Rosé wines chilled to 45-55 °F (7-13°C)

  • Sparkling wines 45 °F (7°C)

  • Most Red wines served 60-65 °F (16-19°C)

  • Very good Red wines 70 °F (21 °C)

Wine service l.jpg
Wine Service

  • Taking the order

  • Collecting the wine

  • Showing the bottle

  • Opening the bottle

  • Letting host taste

  • Serve wine

  • Top up glasses

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Wine Service

  • Serving Size Guidelines

    • 1/2 Bottle - 2 people

    • Split - 1. 5 glasses

    • Bottle - 2 to 6 people

    • Magnum (2 bottles) 7 to 12 people

  • Corkage

  • Serving (from the right)

    • White before Red

    • Decanting Red

    • Different Glasses for each wine

    • Bring new before taking old glass

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Wine Training & Tasting Benefits

  • Increases wine sales

  • Gives servers confidence in making wine suggestions

  • More opportunities for suggesting substitutes

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Increasing Wine Sales



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Wine List

  • A sales tool that can generate revenue

  • List should be attractive, informative, easy to use

  • Organize in various ways: according to uses, dryness, sweetness, body, country etc.

  • Include appealing descriptions; Relate wine to food.

Sake service l.jpg
Sake Service

  • Brewed rice beverage with 15 to 20 % alcohol

  • Similar to beer without carbonation

  • Older is generally not better with sake

  • Sake Service

    • Never pour for yourself

    • Hold in hand not on table for pouring

    • Fill it to the top

    • Cup can be left full

    • Can be served warm but better ones are served chilled

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Server Take Care

  • TIPS

  • NRA - Bar Code and Right Mix

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  • Waters

    • Gas - No Gas, Tapped, Bottled

    • Still and Sparkling

    • How to pour properly

  • Iced Tea

    • hot tea made strong

    • cloudy if chilled too soon

Summary l.jpg

  • Alcohol can be large part of check!

  • Profit in alcohol is good

  • Knowledgeable staff is critical!

    • Open wine see page 152-154

    • Decanting wine see page 156

    • Opening sparkling see page 157